(170) Marshall, The Caucasus under Soviet Rule, 173-74; "Chechnia
: Vooruzhennaia bor'ba v 20-30-e gody," Voenno-istoricheskii arkhiv, no.
Perched on the northern flanks of the Causcasus Mountains 900 miles south of Moscow, Chechnia
is a tiny oil-rich state.
114-30), homes in on the essence of Putin's philosophy vis-a-vis both Chechnia
and Russia in stating: 'what he did have was a grand vision of "Great Russia" and two clear ideas: that military power is the key to restoring that "greatness"; and that total centralized control is the only rational way of organising the State's affairs.'
The include: The Best Wish (Croatia); The Most Precious Gift (Turkey/Croatia); The First Story (Republic of Georgia); The King's Ears (Serbia); Strawberries in Winter (Slovakia); The Prince Who Married a Frog (Croatia); The Three Brothers and the Pot of Gold (Moldavia); One Man's Trouble (Latvia); The Enhanced Princess (Russia); The Old Traveler (Estonia); How the Rich Man Learned a Lesson (Chechnia
); and Nail Soup (Croatia).
The move is partly to compensate for other problems but it has to be taken seriously, in Chechnia
, in Ireland, the Philippines, in Gujarat and in so many places where religious affiliation has become of fundamental importance.
Gammer, Muslim Resistance to the Tsar: Shamil and the Conquest of Chechnia
and Daghestan (Portland, Oregon: F.
Table 1 ICVS Survey Results on Bribe Payment Respondents asked to pay last Percentage paying year to a police officer Canada 0.8% 20.0% USA 1.5% 100.0% Austria 1.5% 50.0% England & Wales 0.2% 0.0% France 2.9% 0.0% Malta 4.3% 21.7% Netherlands 0.7% 0.0% Scotland 0.6% 0.0% Sweden 0.4% 0.0% Switzerland 0.0% 0.0% Albania 14.0% 8.1% Belarus 12.5% 20.9% Bulgaria 19.3% 54.6% Chechnia
9.1% 26.2% Croatia 15.4% 44.4% Estonia 4.0% 36.4% Georgia 30.6% 30.0% Hungary 3.9% 34.5% Latvia 14.3% 12.1% Lithuania 13.4% 32.6% Macedonia 7.7% 9.3% Poland 7.7% 30.7% Romania 12.0% 13.6% Russia 19.0% 52.1% Slovak Rep.
Everywhere he sees Muslim communities persecuted, sometimes by Muslim regimes acting in the defence of civilisation not their own, in Kashgar, in Chechnia
, in Serbia, in India, in Turkey, in Europe, in South East Asia and in the cities of the West.
Beyond the sensational examples of ethnically non-Russian republics like Tatarstan and most notoriously, Chechnia
, where the Russian Federation fought two wars in the 1990s (one still in process at the time of writing in 2002), few analysts recognize the extent to which Russia's fledgling democracy is in disarray due precisely to the central-state's inability to ensure reliably that regional governments comply with its policies and the constitution.
"Agnes Brown seems to be a universal figure - through reading the books The Mammy, The Chiselers and The Granny, people have got to know her and I've had fan letters from Chechnia
, Bosnia, America - there's something about Mrs Brown that makes her an international woman."
He has taught the followers of armed extremist groups that have spread terror in the Punjab, the Middle East, Chechnia
Even Switzerland, where UEFA is based, has advised its nationals not to travel to the area since three Britons were kidnapped and murdered in Chechnia
The one constituent republic in which separatism ultimately led to armed confrontation was Chechnia
, where a brutal war began in 1994, paused in 1996, and erupted again in 1999.
Meanwhile, the EU has been frustrated by Russia's corruption, authoritarianism, failure to reform and bullying of its neighbours and Chechnia
. However, Mr Gowan now sees the possible beginnings of a more fruitful partnership, since the election of Vladimir Putin to Russia's Presidency at the beginning of 2000.
There are several acts going on in the world right now, for example the destruction of Grozny in Chechnia
by the Russians which are anything but civilised - yet the British government is being careful in "the moderation of its criticism".