Persons who were chattel slaves
in 1861 were free Americans by the end of 1865.
In contrast to the predominant chattel form of Atlantic slavery, Africans travelled the Indian Ocean trade networks not only as chattel slaves
but also as bonded servants, soldiers and 'free' agents in the form of sailors, navigators, ship captains, traders and merchants.
I prefer to lay the facts down as they are, and I'm not afraid to point out that the only "state's right " that South Carolina complained about being infringed when it seceded from the United States was that the North was no longerforcibly returning fugitive chattel slaves
(as I did in the 2012 article "Nullification: Ableman v.
With chattel slaves
Mr Bryant couldn't have made his huge fortune, for he could not have fed, clothed, and housed them for four shillings a week each, and they would have had a definite money value which would have served as a protection.
High morbidity and mortality, as well as white dominance, also spoiled, as the author shows, the forging of imperial citizens from chattel slaves
, as the disruptions of war and poverty pushed many of the "free" and "freed" Africans to gamble to obtain true freedom and acquire land wherever possible.
But in Europe high art and portraiture was the privilege of the rich and powerful in courts and great houses, so the Africans who appear in paintings are not those who laboured on slave plant-ations, but domestic servants, chattel slaves
and horse grooms singled out for personal service (Fig.
From the African viewpoint, it was a system which instigated wars in Africa, harvested the prisoners of those wars, sold them on the African coast, trans-shipped and resold them on the American coast, and then worked them to death as chattel slaves
on the plantations and mines of the Americas.