On the Catholic side of the events surrounding and including the massacre, the main actors were the Duke of Guise, who as scion of the house of Lorraine had claims to the French throne, and the French royal family: Charles ix
, the Duke of Anjou, who on Charles's death became Henri iii, and the Queen mother Catherine of Medici.
Meanwhile, the new king was her 15-year-old son Francis II, husband of Mary, but he died within 12 months, in 1560, to be succeeded by his younger brother the 10-year-old Charles IX
When King Charles IX
changed that to January 1, some people stayed with April 1.
Indeed, Goulart argues and presents evidence of the intentions of Catherine de Medici, Charles IX
, and their councilors to subvert the peace that ended the third civil war and to exterminate the Protestants as heretics, beginning with Admiral Coligny.
Michel Biard's stimulating article demonstrates how the arguably minor debate over whether to stage de Belloy's Le Siege de Calais or Chenier's Charles IX
at the Fete de la Federation in 1790 in fact reveals the key tensions concerning not only the freedom of the theatre, but also the depiction and purpose of the monarchy.
Back in the 1500s when someone called Charles IX
was on the throne of France, a precursor of Manolo Blahnik came up with the idea of adding height to the back of the shoe.
The moment when she witnessed the poisoning of Charles IX
was the climax of Brotons's performance.
Who was the mother of the French kings Francis II, Charles IX
and Henry III?
The history of April Fool's Day or All Fool's Day is uncertain, but the current thinking is that it began around 1582 in France with the reform of the calendar under Charles IX
It's been going since 1564 when France's Charles IX
brought in the new Gregorian calendar, changing new year from April 1 to January 1.
Her second son, aged ten, succeeded as King Charles IX
It discusses the response of three kidnapped Tupinambas who were presented to Charles IX
Later Dionisio reported that he also had the ear of King Charles IX
and his court, exhorting the king to lead the defense of Christian unity.
Until France's Charles IX
imposed the Gregorian calendar, what event did medieval Europeans associate with April 1?
Ramee, "qu'en 1563, lors de l'enregistrement des Lettres patentes de Charles IX
pour la reformation du luxe, le parlement arreta que le roi serait supplie de defendre les coches par la ville" (La locomotion, p.