A descriptive and phylogenetic analysis of plumulaceous feather characters in Charadriiformes
The overall objective of the LIFE+ ENVOLL project is to improve the conservation status of colonial Charadriiformes
species listed in the Birds Directive in 9 Natura 2000 sites along the French Mediterranean coast.
11) Piscivorous birds, such as those in the order Charadriiformes
, who ate these virus-laden fish would have the virus in their gastrointestinal tract, where influenza virus receptors are concentrated.
Nutritional considerations for captive Charadriiformes
(shorebirds, gulls, and alcids.
The placement of species into genera and families based on anatomical (including bone, muscle, and feather features) and molecular characters are well documented in the avian order Charadriiformes
Although AIVs have been isolated from >100 species, several species from the orders Anseriformes (ducks, geese, and swans) and Charadriiformes
(shorebirds) are thought to act as the reservoir community for AIV (6), primarily because AIVs have been most frequently isolated from these groups (9).
2011) for ND2 in Charadriiformes
and the upper bound was based on Weir and Schluter (2008) for cytochrome b in Charadriiformes
To gain insight into avian influenza virus (AIV) transmission, exposure, and maintenance patterns in shorebirds at Delaware Bay during spring migration, we examined temporal AIV prevalence trends in 4 Charadriiformes
species with the use of serial cross-sectional data from 2000 through 2008 and generalized linear and additive models.
In most avian orders, the divergence of metacarpal III begins at a more distal position, although there are similar conditions in some Charadriiformes
The majority of positive samples, detected by both assays, were from species that use aquatic habitats, with the highest prevalence from species in the orders Anseriformes and Charadriiformes
Wild waterfowl, primarily species in the orders Charadriiformes
and Anseriformes (1), are natural reservoirs for type A influenza viruses.
However, all are parasites of raptors, which typically use small mammals as prey and may be evolutionarily distinct from the parasite in Charadriiformes
Wild aquatic birds of the orders Anseriformes and Charadriiformes
are the natural reservoir for influenza A viruses (1) and are thought to serve as a source of virus that leads to outbreaks in domestic poultry.