Newman (2000: 661-663) gives a detailed description of this derivational marker for one Chadic language
, Hausa, a major lingua franca spoken primarily in Nigeria and Niger.
Not every Chadic language
has the "ll", but the total population of speakers who regularly use "ll"s - probably a couple of million - far exceeds the number who articulate "ll" in Wales.
In terms of the overall families, the number of Cushitic and Chadic languages
has increased, while the number of Iranian and Turkic languages has decreased.
Similarly, Goemai, a Chadic language
of Nigeria, furnishes language internal evidence for the small set (postural) and multiverb types, where the former can be used presuppositionally while the latter are used assertionally as had been predicted for the two types (Hellwig 2003, this issue).
The grammatical coding of postural semantics in Goemai (a West Chadic language of Nigeria).
Different from Goemai, most Chadic languages employ verbless structures in stative locative contexts (Frajzyngier 1987; Pawlak 1994).
In this regard, it is important to keep in mind that more has been published about Hausa than all of the other Chadic languages
As for Gude itself, the Chadic language under analysis, we learn rather little.
183-97) illustrates what she takes to be a single derivative morpheme in a Central Chadic language (Udlam) which apparently has a wide range of meaning nuances (instrumental, focus, subordination with different nuances) which, as she claims, is unique in Chadic.
I agree with Newman in rejecting this theory in favor of one of common retention from Proto-Afroasiatic, since many other Chadic languages
also have this construction.
Particular languages close to Hausa where the schema has been observed include Margi (Hoffmann 1963: 238), Miya (Schuh 1998: 320), Mupun (Frajzyngier 1991: 45), and many other Chadic languages (Liu 1991: 88ff.
Nominal conjunction and associative marker in Chadic languages.
The label "pronominal strategy" is probably less problematic for structures in Chadic languages
(Frajzyngier 2000:186 ft.
In another group of Chadic languages, including Kanakuru, Ngizim, and Tangale, the order is V--O--focus.
But Green's attempt to defend a uniform FP approach to FCs in Chadic languages also encounters problems.