2005) noted that normal Bs consist of a diminutive short arm, a centromere
, a proximal heterochromatin block, a stretch of euchromatin, followed by four blocks of heterochromatin and the distal-most euchromatin.
Relocation of Aurora B from centromeres
to the central spindle at the metaphase to anaphase transition requires MKlp2.
By using C-banding constitutive heterochromatin regions were observed on the centromeres
of several chromosomes in all species.
Since these cells originate from dicentric chromosomes in which the centromeres
are pulled to the opposite poles (FENECH, 2000), there is a traction force during this process and the chromosome can suffer breakage in any point, which can form a chromosomal fragment that can be transformed into MN (VRAL et al.
2005) have analyzed diffuse centromeres
-specific histone H3 (CENH3) using immunoprecipitation.
The way in which a vital protein is loaded by others into the centromere
, the part of the chromosome that plays a significant role in cell division, has been identified by biologists.
One of the specific autoantibodies, such as anti-double-stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA), usually shows relatively low titers in ANA, whereas others, such as anti-U1RNP and centromere
, may lead to very high titers of positive ANA, irrespective of the clinical and life-threatening severity.
The structure of the centromere
and its functioning.
, associated kinetochores and DNA regions surrounding centromeres
, are complex and rapidly evolving structures (Talbert et al.
It alters the position of the centromeres
but does not alter the linear order of the genes (FERRERI et al.
Such events yield isodicentric Y chromosomes that contain two centromeres
, two copies of some genes, and no copies of other genes (Figure 4B).
are stretches of DNA, often located near the centers of chromosomes, that are instrumental in the proper segregation of chromosomes during cell division.
are key structural features of chromosomes that are necessary for the movement of chromosomes when cells divide, a function that ensures normal distribution of all genetic material to each daughter cell.
By the end of this phase chromosomes have condensed and have replicated to form chromatids and centromeres
Fully condensed chromosomes move to the center of the cell as the spindle is being formed and are attached at their centromeres
to a pair of fibers, one from each pole.