Magnetic resonance venography (MRV) demonstrated right sigmoid and transverse sinus thrombosis, right proximal internal jugular vein thrombosis, and bilateral cavernous sinus thrombosis
2,4) Orbital complications of frontal sinusitis comprise preseptal or orbital cellulitis, subperiosteal abscess, and cavernous sinus thrombosis
Orbital cellulitis or abscess may lead to thrombosis of the superior ophthalmic vein, which may lead to cavernous sinus thrombosis
Septic cavernous sinus thrombosis
complicated by narrowing of the internal carotid artery, subarachnoid abscess and multiple pulmonary septic emboli.
Both patients presented with features suggestive of cavernous sinus thrombosis
(CST), a known complication of facial abscess squeezing or surgical interference.
Vascular lesions such as aneurysms and cavernous carotid fistula (Figure 24) and cavernous sinus thrombosis
or thrombophlebitis can be seen in the cavernous sinus region.
The distribution of those complications in Gallaghar's retrospective analysis was as follows: epidural abscess 23%, subdural empyema 18%, meningitis 18%, cerebral abscess 14%, superior sagittal sinus thrombosis 9%, cavernous sinus thrombosis
9%, and osteomyelitis 9%.
Left untreated, sinusitis can lead to meningitis, an infection of the brain that can lead to brain damage, or to a condition called cavernous sinus thrombosis
, a blood clot in veins around the sinuses that can affect the brain like a stroke.
Venous thrombosis secondary to orbital infection is common and cavernous sinus thrombosis
should be suspected in case with neurological deficit or rapidly increasing proptosis.
Other sequelae include potentially life-threatening conditions such as meningitis, cavernous sinus thrombosis
, brain abscess, and subarachnoid empyema.
One patient had cavernous sinus thrombosis
secondary to skin infection of dangerous area of face.
The consequences of septic jugular vein thrombosis include bacteremia, septic pulmonary emboli, suppurative subclavian phlebitis, lateral sinus thrombosis, brain abscess, cavernous sinus thrombosis
, and other metastatic abscesses.