as effectual as Carduus
Benedictus for agues, and to prevent and cure infection of the plague; as also to open obstructions of the liver and spleen; and thereby as good against the jaundice.
Herbaceous cover did not differ significantly between 1999 and 2008 and was almost entirely comprised of nonnative species such as pampas grass Cortaderia selloana, Italian plumegrass thistle Carduus
pycnocephalus, and umbrella grass Cyperus involucratus.
Ethanol extracts of Atractylis carduus
, Cleome chrysantha, Cocculus pendulus and Conyza incana were highly toxic, causing death of all animals within 4 hours after intraperitoneal injections.
Open field tests of the weevil Hadroponthus trimaculatus and the flea beetle Psylliodes chalcomera against musk thistle, Carduus
Interference effects of the invasive plant Carduus
Exotics found in prairie plantings that appear not to be spreading include Carduus
nutans, Coreopsis grand iflora, C.