With 347 valid species (Eschmeyer & Fong 2013), Apogonidae (cardinalfishes
) is the seventh most speciose family among Perciformes.
Site fidelity and homing behaviour in coral reef cardinalfishes
. Journal of Fish Biology 57:1590-1600.
(Apogonidae) of Madang Province, Papua New Guinea, with descriptions of three new species.
Female size is typically used to predict clutch size in fishes (Bagenal, 1978), including syngnathids (Teixeira and Musick, 2001; Vincent and Giles, 2003), but male dimensions can be also be used to predict brood size in fishes that provide paternal care, such as syngnathids (Strawn, 1958; Teixeira and Musick, 2001) and mouthbrooding cardinalfishes
(Okuda et al., 1998; Kolm, 2002).
of the genus Epigonus Rafinesque, 1810 occur in almost all oceans, from subantarctic and northern cold-temperate to tropical latitudes.
Overall, twelve families were restricted to seagrass habitats: phycid hakes (Phycidae), toadfishes (Batrachiodidae), batfishes (Ogcocephalidae), flyingfishes (Exocoetidae), cardinalfishes
(Apogonidae), barracudas (Sphyraenidae), wrasses (Labridae), combtooth blennies (Blenniidae), mackerels (Scombridae), triggerfishes (Balistidae), boxfishes (Ostraciidae), and porcupinefishes (Diodontidae; Table 1).