There was only an association between paroxetine and right ventricular outflow defects and between sertraline and omphalocele and cardiac septal defects
. However, these two studies were limited by the small number of exposed infants for each malformation.
However, most human studies have either shown no increased risks for these specific defects (PLoS One 2011;6:e22174), or have suggested a possible increased risk for heart defects, primarily cardiac septal defects
Mutations of NKX2-5 gene were also found in patients with non-syndromic congenital heart disease (26) and in patients with congenital cardiac septal defects
After the 1998 EuroHazcon study found a 33% increase in the risk of neural tube defects, cardiac septal defects
, and malformations of major blood vessels among babies born to residents living within 3 kilometers of hazardous waste landfills, its authors decided to develop a scoring method to more precisely determine the hazard potential of such sites.
For example, children with Holt-Oram syndrome have cardiac septal defects
as well as upper-extremity anomalies.