Table 1: Phytochemical screening results Parameters Achomanes diffomis Extracts Hexane Ethanol Alkaloids - + Tannins - + Saponins - - Sterols - + Carbohydrate + + Glycosides + - Flavonoids + - Resin - - Terpenoids - - Phenols - - Phlobatannins - + Balsam - - Volatile oil - + Cardiac glycosides
+ - Anthracene - - Anthraquinone - - = Absent; + = Present Table 2: % of Inhibition at different concentrations (mg/ml) compared with Vitamin C Plan t 0.
Phytochemical constituents Methanol extract Aqueous extract Carbohydrates P P Glycosides P P Anthraquinone P P Cardiac glycosides
P P Saponins P P Steroids and Triterpenes P P Flavanoids P P Tannins P A Alkaloids A P Key: P = Present A = Absent Table 2: Molluscicidal concentration of methanolic and aqueous extracts of Zingiber officinale and Niclosamide on adult Bulinus globosus.
The EA and ME extracts showed the presence of saponins, alkaloids, carbohydrates, cardiac glycosides
, tannins, flavonoids, steroids and terpenoids.
As part of a larger study to screen and identify natural substances with activity against colon cancer, Jenny Felth, Joachim Gullbo, and colleagues picked several cardiac glycosides
for further study.
Acute yellow oleander (Thevetia peruviana) poisoning: cardiac arrhythmias, electrolyte disturbances, and serum cardiac glycoside
concentrations on presentation to hospital.
Plant-derived cardiac glycosides
such as digoxin are used for the treatment of congestive heart failure and other cardiac disorders (1).
1962 Cardiac Glycosides
, VI Moraceae: The Genus Antiaris Lesch.
The solubility of the cardiac glycosides
is inverse to the solubility of cesium, which may be of the use in the technological processes for manufacturing ecologically pure herbal medicines and nutrition.
like digoxin increases the force of the heart's contractions, helping to improve blood circulation.
Additive effects may occur if hawthorn is taken in conjunction with antihypertensive agents, nitrates, cardiac glycosides
, and central nervous system depressants.
Siberian ginseng does not contain cardiac glycosides
Currently, heart failure patients are treated with diuretics such as furosemide to reduce water volume; cardiac glycosides
such as digoxin, which produce a positive inotropic effect in cardiac muscles to improve cardiac output; inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system such as angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors; and medications that block [beta]-adrenergic receptors to the deleterious effects of neurohormones.
Similarly, bitter-tasting repellents (10), mammalian cardiac glycosides
(11), severe skin irritants (12), and cyanides or oxygen radicals released upon mastication (13,14) are well-characterized components of the plant chemical arsenal.
Monarchs feed on milkweed, which contains nasty-tasting compounds called cardiac glycosides
These substances are cardiac glycosides
, agents that reduce heart rate while increasing the force of its contraction.