RCCs generated by oxidative stress not only act as potent glycating agents but also support the carbonylation
reaction, which leads to the formation of compounds called advanced lipoxidation end products (ALEs), since most of these carbonyls, such as malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), derive from lipid peroxidation (9-11).
Pd-clay) transition metal catalysts are effective for the oxidative carbonylation
of amines, or for the reductive carbonylation
of nitro compounds, both leading to urethanes, which are converted to isocyanates with B[Cl.sub.3].
is considered an irreversible oxidative protein modification .
As a kind of environmental-friendly catalysts, BrAlnsted or Lewis acidic ionic liquids (ILs) attracts great attentions of the scientists and engineers in the world, and many organic reactions, such as esterification , dehydration , alkylation , acylation  and carbonylation
, were even reported with excellent conversion, selectivity, and reusability.
Moreover, in MIA + saline-treated rats, systemic oxidative damage was also present, as evaluated by the carbonylation
of plasma proteins.
Among the other factors such as age, diabetes, inflammation, and metabolic diseases, drug-induced increase of carbonylation
have been reported in various conditions in the liver (Venkatraman et al., 2004: Sharma et al., 2006).
The suppressive effect of dietary restriction and weight loss in the obese on the generation of reactive oxygen species by leukocytes, lipid peroxidation, and protein carbonylation
. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001;86:355-62.
Their general topics include high pressure NMR cells, the use of high pressure infrared spectroscopy to study catalytic mechanisms, processing spectroscopic data, carbonylation
of methanol to acetic acid and methyl acetate to acetic anhydride, rhodium catalyzed hydroformylation, alkene/CO copolymerization, the use of spectroscopy in metallocene-based polymerization catalysis, and hydrogenation.
Spencer's chapter on catalytic activation of small molecules is excellent in its treatment of hydrogenation, carbonylation
, hydroformylation, and other such reactions.
Bernlohr, "Oxidative stress and protein carbonylation
in adipose tissue--implications for insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus," Journal of Proteomics, vol.
of proteins, which is the other mechanism of protein modification, may be due to a direct oxidation of lysine, arginine, proline, and threonine residues or through interaction with reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nonoxidative reactions with carbonyl-containing oxidized lipids .
The range of fibrinogen carbonylation
was within limit values found in posterior myocardial infarct patients, thus reflecting the real fibrinogen modifications in cardiovascular diseases .
Hydrogen peroxide-induced carbonylation
of key metabolic enzymes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: the involvement of the oxidative stress response regulators Yapl and Skn7.
Some modifications may be considered reversible and beneficial against attacks caused by ROS; however, some modifications, such as carbonylation
, are irreversible and may thus be destructive, resulting in alterations in the structure and function of proteins.