The most widely prescribed glaucoma drugs include the prostaglandin analogs (PGAs) that lower IOP by increasing the aqueous drainage through the unconventional uveoscleral outflow pathway, whereas the non-PGA drug classes such as the beta blockers, alpha agonists, and carbonic anhydrase inhibitors
, lower IOP by decreasing the production of aqueous humor.
The different groups of drugs prescribed were P-blockers (41.66%), prostaglandin analogs (33.33%), [[alpha].sub.2] adrenergic receptor agonist (16.66%), and carbonic anhydrase inhibitors
(08.33%) Figure 1.
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors
and ventilation: a complex interplay of stimulation and suppression.
Herman, "A carbonic anhydrase inhibitor
as a potential modulator of cancer therapies," Anticancer Research, vol.
(1) Acetazolamide, a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor
, produces corneal swelling by inhibiting these pumps.
* Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors
such as brinzolamide (Azopt) to decrease intraocular fluid production
Serosal exposure to ouabain (Na-K, ATPase inhibitor) decreased Isc 48%, whereas amiloride (sodium ion channel blocker) and acetazolamide (carbonic anhydrase inhibitor
) had no statistically significant effect on Isc or alkalinization rates.
The carbonic anhydrase inhibitor
dorzolamide has recently become available for topical administration.
Complexes 3c (IC50 = 0.09 uM), 4c (IC50 = 0.07 uM) and 6c (IC50 = 0.08 uM ) having substitution of halo groups on para positions show excellent activity against enzyme carbonic anhydrase with IC50 value much better than that of ACZ which is used as standard carbonic anhydrase inhibitor
in this assay.
Becker, "The mechanism of the fall in intraocular pressure induced by the CARBONIC anhydrase inhibitor
, diamox*," American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol.
Therefore, topiramate, a weak carbonic anhydrase inhibitor
, was administered in the intensified dose of 25 mg weekly.
To test these hypotheses, we analyzed the uptake of C[O.sub.2] by these animals in the presence and absence of the membrane-permeable carbonic anhydrase inhibitor
For the statistical analysis, all commercially available ophthalmic solutions in Japan were classified into the following categories: prostaglandin analogues (PGs), beta-blocker (BB), carbonic anhydrase inhibitor
(CAI), and others (Supplemental Table 2).
Patients were excluded from the study if they had non-migraine headache, hepatic or renal impairment, uncontrolled hypertension, renal stones, osteoporosis, angle closure glaucoma, psychosis, pregnant or lactating women, inadequate contraception, patients taking anti-depressant, monoamine oxidase inhibitor, carbonic anhydrase inhibitor
, b-blocker or calcium channel blocker or any other migraine prophylactic therapy.