The tridimensional structure emerges when interlamellar species, like water and carbonate ions
form bridge bonds among the lamellae in c-axis direction, give it a long range ordering [9-13].
* The degree of anions binding into associates in non-saline Haplic Chernozem is significantly higher than that of cations: the molar fraction of associates is 27.7-57.7% for carbonate ion
and 6.3-12.9% for sulphate ion.
Low reported Fe2+ lower concentration in enamel and its effect on the carbonate type A of synthetic HAp (carbonate ion
substituting for both OH- in the c-axis channel of apatite).15
The TAN of the lubricants were very small; no organic, inorganic or carbonate ion
was detected, and there was no elemental metal.
Calcium carbonate (CaC[O.sub.3]) is produced by the reaction between carbonate ions
(C[O.sub.3.sup.2-]) produced through which B.
Chemically speaking, carbonate system simply reflects the carbonate species present in an aqueous solution, these species are; carbonate ions
, bicarbonate ions and the carbonic acid.
Since the industrial revolution began there has been a 30% decrease in pH and a 16% decrease in carbonate ion
The evaluation of in vitro effects included (i) the use of the XTT reduction as a physiological marker of cell metabolism and (ii) the assessment of carbonic anhydrase activity as a biochemical marker of carbonate ion
This increased iron and carbonate ion
concentrations at the fluid-film interface, further increasing film deposition into the already formed film.
Because shellfish rely on carbonate ion
concentrations in water to produce calcium carbonate-based shells, acidification's reduction of carbonate ions
are risking oysters and mussels, say the researchers.
In addition to the above peaks, the absorption peaks appeared around 1400-1600 [cm.sup.-1] indicates carbonate ion
From the thermal behaviour of XRD properties of apatite of Recent pike vertebrae we can draw the following conclusions: (1) heating results in a weight loss of about 3.05 wt%, caused by emanation of carbonate ion
from bioapatite lattice; (2) during this process the values of apatite lattice parameters change in a complicated manner and have several extremums, which is different from the known fossilization trend; the apatite, heated up to 900[degrees]C has lattice parameters a = 9.419 [Angstrom] and c = 6.881 [Angstrom]; and (3) aggregation of crystallites takes place during heating, being strongest at temperatures higher than 600[degrees]C; at the temperature of 900[degrees]C crystallites achieve approximate dimensions of 1000 x 1000 [Angstrom].
The combination of the weakly eluting monovalent bicarbonate and the strongly eluting divalent carbonate ion
results in very flexible yet low-concentration gradient systems whereas the weak hydroxide eluents require high concentrations.
"Carbonic anhydrase will convert carbon dioxide at about 20C into a carbonate ion
, which can be used to turn what was a gas in to something which is solid.