The TAN of the lubricants were very small; no organic, inorganic or carbonate ion
was detected, and there was no elemental metal.
Chemically speaking, carbonate system simply reflects the carbonate species present in an aqueous solution, these species are; carbonate ions
, bicarbonate ions and the carbonic acid.
Pieces of calcium carbonate tend to float freely in the sea, as charged molecules called carbonate ions
Since the industrial revolution began there has been a 30% decrease in pH and a 16% decrease in carbonate ion
2007, Reversed deep-sea carbonate ion
basin gradient during the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum: Paleoceanography, v.
The evaluation of in vitro effects included (i) the use of the XTT reduction as a physiological marker of cell metabolism and (ii) the assessment of carbonic anhydrase activity as a biochemical marker of carbonate ion
A very important reaction when modelling the rate of carbon dioxide corrosion is the precipitation of iron carbonate occurring when the combined concentration of iron and carbonate ions
From the mineralogical point of view, bioapatites are a complicated and flexible mineral group, having a wide range of substituting elements and ions on the one hand and several substitution positions for carbonate ions
on the other hand (e.
The combination of the weakly eluting monovalent bicarbonate and the strongly eluting divalent carbonate ion
results in very flexible yet low-concentration gradient systems whereas the weak hydroxide eluents require high concentrations.
Carbonic anhydrase will convert carbon dioxide at about 20C into a carbonate ion
, which can be used to turn what was a gas in to something which is solid.
Below a certain pH and corresponding carbonate ion
concentration, conditions become corrosive to calcium carbonate, which is used by many organisms to build shells and skeletons.
The carbonate ion
substitution is identified by characteristic doublet peak of the carbonate ions
around 1420 and 1480 cm-1 and a singlet peak  at 875 cm-1 which is attributed to the vibrational modes of the carbonate ion
substituted at the phosphate site.
Hard water becomes problematic in cooling water and other energy transfer systems because bicarbonate ion is thermally unstable and easily decomposes to carbon dioxide and carbonate ion
according to the following reaction:
1] that was indicative of the carbonate ion
Cation concentrations for the filtered seawater were measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy; total carbonate ion
concentration was determined by titration with HC1.