The most widely used non-lethal weapons are chemical agents, such as tear gas and pepper spray; blunt impact munitions, including rubber bullets and bean bag rounds; diversionary devices, among which are flash/bang grenades and electric shock, and anti-vehicle systems, embracing caltrops
and spike strips to deflate tires.
I once had the painful misfortune to slip and fall on one of these botanical caltrops
Don't confuse rough, thin-skinned water chestnut corms with water caltrops
(Trapa bicornis, ling gok in Chinese); the two are not related but both may be labeled water chestnuts.
Runways and roads are put out of action by dispersing four-spiked caltrops
over them, which are cemented in place using hardening adhesives, Chemical embrittlement agents, which attack metallic components by weakening them and causing structural fracture, are applied to weapons and military installations.
can also be used as an additional measure, ensuring that the vehicles are rendered immobile.
are four-pronged metal pieces, approximately 2 inches tall, that puncture tires or boots.