Readers do not observe any other textual manifestations that are highly characteristic of Spanish as spoken in the U.S., such as phonologically integrated borrowings, lexical and morpho-syntactic calques
, semantic extensions (Lipski 2007; Mendieta 1999; Nash 1970; Otheguy 2003), use of discourse markers to organize the narrative (Koike 1987), or crossings with the pragmatic purpose of clarification, change of footing (theme, direct/reported speech), addressing the interlocutor(s) or calling their attention (Zentella 1997).
In addition to borrowings, another common contact phenomenon is the use of calques
or loan translations.
Gr [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and also [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], so not necessarily a calque
); voje-voda "(military) leader", perhaps a calque
of OHG heri-zogo (or of a corresponding form from another Old Germanic dialect), or neto-pyr[??] 'bat', lit.
Nevertheless, Furiassi, Pulcini and Rodriguez Gonzalez (2012) have expounded anglicisms through a state-of-the-art and unifying overview of the most relevant concepts regarding lexical borrowings and calques
The diachronic analysis of the corpus showed a major presence of English in modern TV dubbed language, for both external elements like titles and captions as well as internal elements like syntactic structures and lexical calques
. There is also a rise in its predictability, and thus this kind of translation supports the Italian tendency of using grammaticalized structures.
Thus, loans become the main source for the terminology of cosmetics, while calques
are more sporadic, for that period.
However, the first task to be fulfilled is to describe the attitude of Lithuanian linguists, translators and other interested parties to translation, particularly, to using foreign words, calques
, translation changes and other translation techniques, which influences the choice of the particular strategy of translation.
17): dans la traduction un calque
du signifie, qui resulte neutre sur le plan du style, est employe.
These were manipulated as removable calques
: "We superimposed them.
In the same article, the form [??] for [??] "against me" is described as being an example of "[assimilated variants and calques
from translations of other Aramaic dialects."
Si tant d'amateurs traduisent a partir surtout de ou vers l'anglais, c'est que cette langue n'est pas qu'un systeme formel, son emploi ne se mesure pas qu'aux seules interferences ou calques
. Un natif monolingue aura peut-etre 10 solutions de traduction contre deux ou trois pour le bilingue mais a partir du moment oo la traduction, l'activation des competences sont collectives, que d'autres peuvent fournir les sept ou huit autres solutions eventuelles, rien n'interdit plus de traduire.
which are accurate appropriations of foreign construction, accurate translations of the constitutive elements:
The last four articles discuss the Arabic word in contemporary linguistic theory and in contact, with individual papers on the automatic extraction of prepositions in a group of written texts and Arabic loanwords and calques
. The identification of lexical and syntactic calques
was carried out with the support of authoritative dictionaries and style guides, online Spanish corpora such as the CREA from the Spanish Royal Academy, as well as online searches.