It was well-known in Islamic history among all Muslims including caliphs
, sultans, ministers and pilgrims.
The Persians who had retained their Zoroastrian faith and who, when they did not feel strong enough to throw off control, either out of fear of local rivals or of rebellion by their subjects, co-operated with the caliphs
This Islamic legal fiction of the caliphs
' remaining the font of legitimate political authority could no longer be maintained, however, once the Seljuqs came upon the scene--first, because they were "much too powerful to masquerade as governors," (5) and second, and more importantly, because after "liberating" the caliphs
from the control of the Shi (') ite Buyids and their generals, the Seljuqs themselves discarded the fiction of governorship that had held sway since the ninth century.
Among the fourteen caliphs
of the Umayyad besides Muawiyahit is not only 'Abdul Malik bin Marwan and 'Umar bin 'Abdul Aziz, who are known for taking care of redress of public grievances.
Historians have long known that the early caliphs
served as the leaders of the umma, or united community of the world's Muslims.
The Mihrab of the Prophet's Mosque where it now stands was first established at the current spot by Caliph
Othman bin Affan.
Mu'awiya was the founding caliph
of the Umayyad Dynasty.
ySTANBUL (CyHAN)- Khalid bin al-Walid, who after becoming Muslim won every war he joined in the name of Allah, was removed from his position as commander by Caliph
The fifth caliph
, Muawiya, appointed his son as a successor, setting the family dynasty pattern of the caliphs
up until the twentieth century.
This article tries to present the research about the mentioned issues to investigate the part of the culture and civilization of Islamic world and showing its effect on the attitude of the Abbasid caliphs
from translation of this text.
He was one of the most powerful and influential Muslim caliphs
Khilaffah is an Arabic term for caliphate, a kind of Islamic ideology and governance exemplified by four caliphs
anointed by Prophet Mohammad to succeed him in the advancement of Islam.
Ayman Al-Zawahiri declared themselves as Caliphs
, who were much higher in militant stature than Baghdadi.
After the first four caliphs
who succeeded Mohammed, the caliphate lived its golden age in the Omayyad empire from the year 661 to 750, and then under the Abbasids, from 750 to 1517.
It is the age of fabrications and travesties to conspire against Tripoli and Sunnis by inaugurating anonymous princes and caliphs