4) The controversy continues to arm modern apologists in the primacy war: from an Eastern perspective, Gregory, one of the most "Orthodox" popes in history, provides a concise condemnation of papal authority; from a Roman perspective, the machinations of the emperor and his patriarch characterize Byzantine arrogance and display the deficiencies of caesaropapism
and unto God what is God's") prevented the emergence of Caesaropapism
in Christian history or the medieval concept of Christendom, all-encompassing visions of a tight relation between church and state not altogether different from some contemporary Islamic understandings of the ummah, or the community of all Muslim believers.
Cholij ably leads the reader through the complexity of Byzantine concepts such as the economy of the saints, dangers of caesaropapism
, and competing claims to spiritual authority.
The West, in turn, opposed the Caesaropapism
(subordination of the Church to a secular ruler) that characterised the Church at Constantinople.
the idea of a revived Caesaropapism
is the standard one made by the