The information he gathered resulted in almost twenty authored or coauthored publications about Caddoan tribes, though only two of these concerned the Caddos proper.
In the 1900s an even smaller group defined themselves as "Hasinai" which means "our people." But these Hasinais could trace their ancestors to different Caddoan villages and in some cases different Caddoan regions.
What we can conclude with certainty is that the two different stories point to a tumultuous history that threatened--but did not extinguish--the Caddoan people who had once farmed and hunted in Texas and continued to fight for survival in Oklahoma.
Lowie, Indians of the Plains 96-97 (1954) (referring to the tribes of the Crow, Hidatsa, Mandan, and Pawnee); Terrell & Terrell, supra note 68, at 28-29 (matrilineal tribes included Iroquois, Siouan, Mohegan, Delaware, Powhatan, Creek, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Seminole, Caddoan
linguistic family, Pawnee, Hidatsa, Mandan, Oto, Missouri, Crow, Navajo Hopi, Laguna, Acoma, and Zuni).
A tribe of Plains Indians who belonged to the group speaking the Caddoan
Pecan Point was the location of a large Caddoan village on the south side of the Red River which was inhabited in 1815.
Northeastern Texas at one time supported a large population of Caddoans. Village sites were common along the Sulphur and Sabine rivers and on the south side of the Red River for a distance of 120 to 150 kilometers upstream from Texarkana (Clark, 1937; Swanton, 1946).
Eastward recession of the margin of the northeastern Texas piney woods has been brought about by human activities including clearing and burning by Caddoans, timber use for immigrant construction purposes, agricultural clearing by early and current residents, and early and current timber harvest.
Chafe (personal communication) also reports that similar morphological categories exist in the Caddoan
language which distinguish between real and imagined things (e.g., experiences that cannot be verified).
sometimes called Ricarees or Rees, a tribal group of <IR> PLAINS INDIANS </IR> related to others of the Caddoan
Having said all that I want to urge potential readers who are seriously interested in learning about southern Caddoan people to persevere past these scholarly barriers.
From that time in which Caddoan peoples became dependent on European goods, Caddoan-European interaction became less equitable and more dominated by Europeans.
"The Caddo Nation" provides serious students a valuable tool for beginning to understand ancient southern Caddoan peoples.
Maurer's research does this in two ways: he uses the Thunderbird and Underground Monster imagery found on rock art at such locations as Writing-on-Stone in Southern Alberta; Dinwoody Lake, Wyoming; Legend Rock Site in Central Wyoming; Castle Gardens; Spiro Mound, and other places to show that similar imagery was used by Plains peoples and the distant Caddoan
Temple Mound Builders (A.D.
Covering, as he does, a vast literature encompassing many indigenous groups, the author has, not surprisingly, made some errors-e.g., not being aware of Navajo game-driving or of pre-1860 Navajo presence in Arizona, and supposing that wikiups were adopted from Great Basin groups, when they are more like Caddoan