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He observed that leaves are vestigial in all of the Cactoideae species he studied.
Anatomical characters are rarely incorporated into phylogenetic analyses of Cactoideae.
For this analysis, 41 genera of Cactoideae were selected to represent the nine tribes proposed by Barthlott and Hunt (1993); two genera of Opuntioideae were also selected.
Dermal features appear to be the most informative stem characters in several groups of Cactoideae.
All members of Cactoideae studied possess parallelocytic stomata, and variation appears to be related only to the number of associated subsidiary cells (Eggli, 1984; Anderson, 1987; Loza-Cornejo & Terrazas, 2003).
Prismatic crystals and druses are the most common types of oxalate crystals present in Cactoideae.
A hypodermis generally occurs under the epidermis and usually consists of more than one layer in stems of Cactoideae, although it has been secondarily lost in several taxa, such as Blossfelia (Barthlott & Porembski, 1996) and species of Astrophytum and Echinocereus (HerreraCardenas et al.
Medullary bundles occur only in Cactoideae and have been lost in several members of Cacteae, Echinocereeae, and Notocacteae (Boke, 1956, 1957b; Gibson & Horak, 1978; Mauseth, 1993b; Loza-Cornejo & Terrazas, 1996; Mauseth et al.
The secondary xylem of Cactoideae can be divided into two large groups.