Subsequent studies by Robinson (1988) did not find evidence of preening mutualism in Peruvian hosts including Yellow-rumped Caciques and Russet-backed Oropendolas (Psarocolius angustifrons), which were invariably aggressive to Giant Cowbirds.
A Giant Cowbird egg was once reported from a nest of Red-rumped Caciques in Amazonian Brazil (Pinto 1953), but recent studies on the cacique in eastern Brazil (Duca and Marini 2004, 2008; Pizo 2009) did not report parasitism.
My objectives are to: (1) provide the first account of the host-parasite interaction between Red-Rumped Caciques and Giant Cowbirds, (2) compare this interaction with previous studies of Giant Cowbirds and other hosts with particular emphasis on the possible egg and nestling mimicry by the parasite, and (3) evaluate the possible occurrence of a preening mutualism between caciques and cowbirds.
Information on the Argentinean distribution of Giant Cowbirds and data on colony sizes of Red-rumped Caciques were obtained during field trips to Corrientes and Misiones provinces (1995-2007), and from the literature and museum specimens.
The early chroniclers and Friars all noted that the leaders or caciques of households, villages and regions all possessed and venerated sculptural idols of various forms they called cemis.
The caciques kept] these diabolical images in their houses [caneys], in selected dark places and locations that were reserved for prayer.
The volume is a detailed and coherent argument that lays out the complex web of relationships among Taino caciques and non-human actors imbued with cemi power.
Caciques and cemi idols is divided into 22 sections, grouped into six large parts.
Por subordinar-se ao rei, os caciques ganhariam, em tese, a mesma distincao concedida aos leais vassalos da monarquia hispanica.
7) Por resistir aos invasores, muitos caciques perderam suas prerrogativas e viram as suas terras e bens apropriados pelos vencedores.
Os caciques e os principais mantinham-se com a cobranca de tributos as populacoes estabelecidas em suas proprias comunidades e nos territorios conquistados.
Based on a thorough and compelling regional examination of the caciques
and camarillas of the Cardenas years, Fallaw rejects the prevailing characterization of the period, whether by populists, revisionists or postrevisionists, as one in which state power was centralized or consolidated in the federal government.
Nine days later, two more caciques visited the ship bearing with them, as a sign of their good faith and zeal, the fourteen-day-old head of a slain Spaniard.
Their passengers safely delivered, the Dutch promptly initiated consultations with the local caciques and resumed their Chilean diplomacy.
Confronted with the all-too-familiar European demand for gold, the caciques "thereupon uniformly denied all knowledge of the gold mines.