The goal of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) in HIV is to bring down the viral load and increase the CD4 cell
count so that the body reconstitutes its immune system AND increases the CD4 count to a manageable level of 500 and more.
Can chemoprophylaxis against opportunistic infections be discontinued after an increase in CD4 cells
induced by highly active antiretroviral therapy?
The distribution ofcryptococcal antigenemia was highly varying with CD4 cell
Increasing virulence of the virus was suggested by an annual fall in CD4 cell
count of approximately 5 [cells/mm.sup.3] and an increase in viral load set-point of 0.013 log10 copies/ml.
A treatment strategy that includes interruptions in antiretroviral therapy (ART) guided by patients' CD4 cell
counts was deemed detrimental in 2006 by investigators in the Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapies (SMART) trial.
HIV destroys CD4 cells
, and doctors monitor patients' CD4 levels to determine when to start drug therapies.
With an active viral replication, the rate of CD4 cells
destruction might outweigh the rate of production of newer cells.
The risk of infant death was reduced the higher the maternal CD4 cell
HIV infects and kills CD4 cells
, weakening the immune system.
are transduced with the vector and subsequently expanded in culture for 8-11 days to more than 10 billion cells prior to reintroduction into the patient.
* Other researchers showed that HIV grew much better and evolved much faster in HIV-specific CD4 T cells than in other CD4 cells
. This is not surprising, because the cells that recognize the virus become activated as a result, and HIV grows much faster in activated cells.
As HIV attacks and destroys CD4 cells
, the weakened immune system becomes less able to fight infection and disease.
In the animals given DNA vaccines, a transient loss of CD4 cells
occurred (lymphopenia) that was not seen in animals given adenoviral vector vaccines.
Researchers eventually learned that people with the Delta 32 mutation lack a functional gene coding for producing a receptor called CCR5--one of two chemical "locks" on the surface of CD4 cells
that HIV can penetrate.
Doctors can track the progress of HIV infection by measuring the number of CD4 cells
in the blood.