type D was sensitive to tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, vancomycin, kanamycin, streptomycin, gentamicin, sulfamethoxazole and erythromycin, while showed resistance against carbenicillin, amoxicillin, penicillin g, colistin sulphate, bacitracin and metronidazole.
can form biofilms, and type IV pilus and CcpA protein are necessary for biofilm formation.
Enterotoxaemia caused by C. perfringens
type D is a disease of great economic and sanitary importance for ruminants farming worldwide, including in Brazil (BALDASSI et al., 1995; COLODEL et al., 2003; OLIVEIRA et al., 2010; SUMITHRA et al., 2013).
2) based on morphological and biochemical characters it is identified as C. perfringens
. Opalescence in egg-yolk agar revealed lecithinase production (Fig.
was isolated from an anaerobic culture of the residual platelets.
Epsilon toxin of C. perfringens
is considered 3rd most potent toxin after Botulinum and tetanus.
Detection of pleuropulmonary infections with C. perfringens
has improved with advances in sampling and culture methods .
is known to release 4 toxins which are highly toxic and primarily responsible for disease pathogenesis.
The production of spores is a bacterial survival mechanism [3, 6, 15] that allows C. perfringens
to survive until environmental conditions change and become favorable for growth.
Identification of alternative management practices to control disease has been hindered by the difficulty of experimentally reproducing NE by C. perfringens
infection alone .
From the results, we concluded that probiotic and organic acid could be successfully used as antibiotic to sustain growth and biochemical profile in broilers challenged with C. perfringens
Based upon a recommendation by the Michigan Department of Community Health, specimens were sent to their laboratory and analyzed for Bacillus cereus and C. perfringens
. All six specimens were found to be negative for B.
alpha ([alpha]) beta ([beta]), epsilon ([epsilon]) and iota (i), C. perfringens
is divided into five major toxinotypes/biotypes (A-E) (6,10,11).
Several reports showed that Bacillus subtilis are capable of producing an antimicrobial factor against many bacteria, including C. perfringens
, a causative agent of necrotic enteritis in broilers through the immunestimulating activity of the Bacillus subtilis (Muscettola et al., 1992; Seah et al., 2002; Yurong et al.,2005; Teo and Tan, 2006, 2007; Rajput and Li, 2012).