By then, the empire had ceased to exist, so Westerners with no knowledge of Greek or access to the relevant documents had no way of checking the historical reality against the disparaging claims of Edward Gibbon and others, for whom the Byzantines
served as a convenient starting point for the Whig writing of history--the primeval nightmare of superstitious despotism out of which the Western world awoke and arose.
The venue of the meeting was the same, the flat field of the river Lamis which flowed into the Mediterranean Sea; the Muslims on the eastern bank and the Byzantines
on the western bank (Kennedy, H.
She pictures how the Byzantines
saw themselves and the world around them (pp.
Latin Christian, Byzantine
Christian, Eastern Christian, Muslim, plus their many subdivisions, not only fought but also co-existed for several centuries.
Luttwak does a very good job in describing how the Byzantines
were able to use their effective network of intelligence, diplomats, and allies to become aware of any potential and emerging threats, deal with those threats early on, fall back on new methods and techniques if the threats continued to grow, and then ultimately deal with the threats directly.
According to Luttwak, the Byzantines
fundamentally altered the relationship among the three elements he believes comprise grand strategy.
Dara was a fortified city and strategically important Byzantine
military post that overlooked a major route between Persia and Mesopotamia.
The exhibition is a collaboration with the British Museum, where it opened last summer to coincide with the 21st International Congress of Byzantine
While they regard the Byzantine
state as a potential source of Classical texts, the sources are careful to distinguish the ancient Greeks from the Byzantines
, whose adherence to Christianity is often regarded as having led them to neglect ancient Greek wisdom.
Lowered from the ceiling to eye level is a gigantic 13th- or 14th-century copper chandelier heavy with crosses, ornamental disks and silhouettes of legendary animals--a foretaste of the fantasy and legend the Byzantines
themselves fell into.
Most of the mining activity, however, dates to the Roman and Byzantine
periods, from the late first century BC through the sixth century AD.
Bishop Arethas and other Byzantines
regarded him as the Anti-Christ; he was included in the first edition of the Index Librorum Prohibitorum (1557); on September 3, 1766, he was the protagonist villain in a musical drama called 'Lucian of Samosata the Hapless Atheist' presented by the Jesuit School at Regenshurg; Lord Macaulay dubbed him 'The Voltaire of Antiquity'.
In the propaganda campaigns initiated in his time, the Byzantines
were portrayed as deserving of Muslim attacks not only because they were "infidels" but also because they were culturally inferior to Muslims who--in contradistinction to the Byzantines
--appreciated ancient Greek science and had such books translated into Arabic.
They were succeeded by the Byzantines
who got it back after an Ostrogothic interlude.
The condemnation of the errors is not only an attack against foreign innovation, but is also directed against those Byzantines
who would consider themselves orthodox and yet associate with, compromise with, marry with, or even share religious services with Latins.