In C4 plants like maize, CO2 is primarily fixed to form malate in MC and then transferred into bundle sheath cells
(BSC) by the C4 pathway to generate NADPH and release CO2, which is reduced by Calvin cycle.
In contrast, phytoliths of some other commelinid monocots, such as palms and bananas, are primarily restricted to the vascular bundle sheath cells
. However, sedge phytoliths differ in some other respects from those of grasses; Mehra and Sharma (1965) reported that sedge phytoliths are located only over the veins (compared with both costal and intercostal zones in grasses) and possess different characteristic shapes compared with grass phytoliths.
prostrata present Kranz-type leaf anatomy with prominent bundle sheath cells
and a layer of radial mesophyll cells that surrounds the vascular bundles (Figure 4A).
The vascular bundles of C4 plants are surrounded by a group of cells called bundle sheath cells
. The density of chloroplast is much greater there than in the other spongy mesophyll cells.
[C.sub.4] plants have succeeded in eliminating photorespiration by splitting the reactions of photosynthesis between two types of cells, mesophyll cells (MC) and bundle sheath cells
(BSC) (Kranz anatomy).