The faunas of cornulitids and bryozoans
in the Ordovician of Estonia are relatively well studied (Bassler 1911; Opik 1930; Modzalevskaya 1953; Mannil 1959, 1961; Lavrenteva 1990; Goryunova 1992, 1996; Pushkin & Gataulina 1992; Goryunova & Lavrenteva 1993; Vinn 2013).
But when the whole ocean gets warm, the algae may suffer, too, leaving the bryozoans
, bivalves, brachiopods and echinoderms (stenohaline).
, horseshoe crabs, and other mobile benthic substrates.
Other groups that were frequently consumed included gastropods (46%), bryozoans
(45%), echinoderms (33%), and bony fishes (32%); however, these species contributed little by weight.
In Ardanatz AD3 and Arraitza ARR1 sections fossils of sponges and erected bryozoans
are abundant within the silty marls (Astibia et al.
Taphonomically, important encrusters whose have hard-parts include bryozoans
, serpulid worms, foraminifera, corals and barnacles (Parsons and Brett, 1991; Perry, 2000; McKinney, 1996, El-Hedeny, 2005, 2007a, b).
Invasion patterns inferred from cytochrome oxidase I sequences in three bryozoans
, Bugula neritina, Watersipora subtorquata, and Watersipora arcuata.
Studies on diving impact have shown that raising sediment was the most frequent effect produced by divers, followed by contact with fragile organisms such as gorgonians, corals, and bryozoans
Among the taxa reported as epibionts on ascidians are bacteria, algae, bryozoans
, hydroids, soft corals, and sponges (Stoecker, 1980; Davis and White, 1994; Wahl et al.
The authors suggest that the lack of size change in the majority of bryozoans
studied here may indicate that the Lilliput effect is not universal at all levels, and that the response may vary across organisms.
Different types of fauna, observed in the formation, include brachiopods, bryozoans
, crinoids, bivalves and foraminifera (fusulinids).
Limpet stomachs contained 78 taxa, including filamentous cyanobacteria, diatoms, brown and red algae, marine seagrass, foraminifera, hydrozoans, bryozoans
, nematodes, bivalves, gastropods, crustaceans, and tunicates.
from Serre de Bleyton (Drome, SE France).
Systematic sampling was used for recognizing and studying Permian brachiopods in the Zal Stratigraphic Section,; 60 samples were collected, along with corals and bryozoans
, 13 genera and 27 species being recognized in the 15-meter thicksection.