Upper Ordovician bryozoans
of the Pin Formation (Spiti valley, northern India).
are tiny marine animals (2) that live in colonies.
Sisyra nigra, a native Neuroplera, parasite of Peclinatella magnifica, an European nonnative Bryozoan
. Revue scientifique Bourgogne-Nature, 23:133-140.
This facies is bioclastic grainstone and consists of brachiopod shells, bryozoans
, ostracods, gastropods, crinoids and mollusks (Fig.
During the experiment, an abundant supply of algae fueled the growth of the bryozoans
. But when the whole ocean gets warm, the algae may suffer, too, leaving the bryozoans
, bivalves, brachiopods and echinoderms (stenohaline).
Many groups of marine invertebrates (e.g., annelids, bryozoans
, cnidarians, crustaceans, mollusks, polychaetes, poriferans etc.) are recognized as epizoans on a wide variety of other mobile and sessile invertebrates, mainly crustaceans, xiphosurans and mollusks (see Mori & Manconi, 1990; Gili, Abello, & Villanueva, 1993; Key, Jeffries, Voris, & Yang, 1996; Villegas, Stotz, & Laudien, 2005; Fernandez-Leborans, 2010; Farrapeira & Calado, 2010; Lima, Queiroz, Bravo de Laguna, & Mioso, 2014; Lima, Queiroz, Oliveira, Christoffersen, & Guimaraes, 2016; Machado et al., 2013; Romero et al., 2013).
Then there are the fossils found here: gastropods and cephalopods, crinoids and bryozoans
, worm holes and tracks.
Colonial organisms (i.e., bryozoans
and tunicates) were counted as one individual.
Their siliciclastic content mainly consists of clay, whereas the carbonate content mainly derives from the abundant calcareous skeletal remains, such as bryozoans
These little creepy-crawlies represent the ubiquitous aquatic invertebrates--biologists use terms like oligochaete worms, bryozoans
, as well as the larvae of caddisflies, mayflies, and chironomids (midges).
Balanoids, polychaetes, bivalves and bryozoans
are the recorded encrusters.
The seafloor teems with rare invertebrates, sponges, sea anemones, sea lilies and feather stars, as well as filter-feeders called bryozoans
Red algae, Green algae, Pieces of corals, Bryozoans
, Miliolids, Bigenerina sp.