(32) The eye may be particularly prone to temporal UV exposure and the peripheral light focusing effect because of its anatomical position, since ocular shading is only provided from above by the brow ridge
and eyelids, from below by the cheeks and from the nasal side by the bridge of the nose leaving the temporal side unshielded.
''The face is tall with a massive brow ridge
, yet the mid-face is short (in superoinferior dimension) and less prognathic than in (chimpanzee) or Australopithecus,'' one of the article said.
Sexually dimorphic features in male faces include a broad jaw, broad forehead, and more pronounced brow ridge
, while a sexually dimorphic female face has a more tapered chin, larger lips, and a narrower forehead.
Kappelman says the skull's heavy brow ridge
and sharply sloped forehead mark it as H.
Another telling sign appears on the Oase skull's forehead, which lacks a brow ridge
typical of Neandertals.
As in gorillas today, the heavy brow ridge
of Sahelanthropus worked with other skull elements to anchor powerful chewing muscles.
No one had predicted that elements of later skulls--in particular, a short, relatively flat face, pronounced brow ridge
, and small canine teeth--coexisted with a chimp-size brain in early hominids.
These include a prominent brow ridge
, a jutting face, large jaws, and a bony protrusion at the back of the head.
She notes, for instance, that the angle and size of the specimen's brain case and its moderate brow ridge
fall squarely between measurements of the same traits in the two established groups.
Round and swollen molar cusps and a brow ridge
that does not project from the face also link Ouranopithecus to early hominids, the French scientists say.
Caption: What we see here: Avoidance Brow ridges