In addition to the parietal regions, activation overlap was also observed in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG, involving the pars opercularis and pars triangularis which include Brodmann's areas
44 and 45) and the precentral gyrus among mind in the eyes, social animations, and the vPT tasks (see Figure 1, Table 4).
The thalamic function of relaying or "gating" sensory input (Steriade et al., 1997), and more specifically the MDs numerous reciprocal connections to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann's area
9, 10 and 46) and afferent connections to the striatum, basal ganglia and limbic system is well-documented (Goldman-Rakic and Porrino, 1985; Alexander et al., 1990; Armstrong, 1990; Jones, 1997b; Steriade et al., 1997; Jones, 2002; Erickson and Lewis, 2004).
They obtained positive correlations in (relatively anterior) right insula (Talairach coordinates = 28, 14, 6) and negative correlations in right middle frontal gyrus, right dorsal ACC, and posterior cingulate cortex (Brodmann's areas
24, 23, 31, respectively), bilateral (relatively posterior) insula, and bilateral orbitofrontal cortex (Brodmann's area
Left inferior temporal lobe (Brodmann's area
37) was the most reliably and robustly activated area across subjects, had activity which extended superiorly into occipital association cortex (area 19).
Table 1 contains Talairach coordinates and Brodmann's area
numbers for the areas of activation and deactivation.
This area corresponds to the posterior part of the frontal lobe (Brodmann's area
4, the primary motor field of the isocortex) and the anterior parts of the cerebral parietal lobe (the gyrus postcentralis, which corresponds to the primary somatosensory fields, Brodmann's areas
1, 2, and 3).
Afferent input into these nuclei is from the cerebral cortex, information being received from the primary motor cortex (Brodmann's area
4), primary sensory cortex (Brodmann's area
3, 1, 2), association cortex (Brodmann's area
5), premotor cortex (Brodmann's area
6), and supplementary cortex (Brodmann's area
Most reported data are for particular layers in area V1 in the visual cortex (Brodmann's area
The masks used in this study were Brodmann's area
(BA) 17OR19, BA41OR42, BA44OR45, BA39OR40, BA5 OR 7, BA 32 OR 33, BA 1 OR 2 OR 3, and BA 4 (where "OR" refers to the logical addition of two masks), cerebellum, and Med OFC.
In addition to these, there are some neuroimaging studies such as those using functional magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography, demonstrating less activation by complex sounds in autistic children in Brodmann's areas
21 and 39, which are thought to be auditory associative and involved in word processing.
The study of mRNA encoding the different subunits has now extended original findings on radioligand binding to show an increase in levels of mRNA encoding the [alpha]-1 subunit of the [GABA.sub.A] receptor in Brodmann's areas
9 and 10 from subjects with schizophrenia .
Healthy subjects activated most vigorously in the anterior portion of the left inferior frontal gyrus, a locus equivalent to what researchers call Brodmann's areas
45 and 47 (which, incidentally, is just anterior-inferior to the classical Broca's area).