Finally, Martinez Garrido's attention to Piccolo manifesto dei comunisti (senza classe ne partito) and the Lettera alle Brigate Rosse
turns a welcome spotlight on two texts that have received little critical attention yet, as she correctly asserts, are important for understanding Morante.
The absence of a clearly defined border between legality and illegality is clearly reflected in the publication Brigate rosse. Che cosa hanno fatto, che cosa hanno detto, che cosa se ne e detto (The Red Brigades: What They Have Done, What They Have Said, What Has Been Said About Them, 1976), published by the Giangiacomo Feltrinelli publishing house and edited by Soccorso Rosso (Red Aid), an organisation that provided legal assistance to militants and conducted counter-information activity.
As for the new Brigate Rosse, who killed Massimo D'Antona (1999) and Marco Biagi (2002)--that is another story.
Della Chiesa pummeled the Brigate rosse
with mass arrests of left-wing radicals and the State Police created a new and expert anti-terrorist unit.
The man who actually killed Moro, Mario Moretti, noted in Brigate Rosse: una storia italiana ("The Red Brigades: An Italian Story," 1994) that the terrorists thought of themselves as part of the tradition of "Communist revolution." They were not given to "theoretical rigidities" any more than Lenin was in 1917 with his use of Marxist doctrines.
In Armi e bagagli: un diario dalle Brigate Rosse ("Arms and Baggage: A Diary from the Red Brigades" 1987), Enrico Fenzi explained that the Left wanted to forget its own acceptance of the revolutionary premises from which Red Brigadism had evolved.
Recently, three women who played fundamental roles in Italy's lotta armata have published autobiographical writings: Nell'anno della tigre: La storia di Adriana Faranda (Baldini & Cosoldi, 1995), and Nel cerchio della prigione (Sperling & Kupfer, 1996) by Anna Laura Braghetti of the Brigate Rosse
and Francesca Mambro, co-founder of the right-wing NAR (Nuclei Armati Rivoluzionari).
On March 16, 1978, Aldo Moro--a key figure of Italy's ruling Christian Democracy--was captured in Rome in broad daylight by the Red Brigades (Brigate Rosse
, hence the initials B.R.).
16 marzo 1978: a Roma, in Via Fani, Aldo Moro viene rapito dalle Brigate rosse
e 5 uomini della scorta vengono uccisi.
Ruth Glynn (one of the editors of the volume) authors Chapter 4, 'Moro as Figure of Speech: The Displaced Confessions of the Women of the Brigate Rosse
.' Glynn treats some of the female members of the BR (Adriana Faranda, Anna Laura Braghetti, and Barbara Balzerani) and points out the gendered implications of political violence in Italy in the 1970s.
Ma la storia, quella italiana che fa da sfondo alle vicende, incalza con il movimento delle "Brigate rosse
," il rapimento di Aldo Moro, la militanza di sinistra, che coinvolge il mondo studentesco e i professori universitari, il cui destino e spesso segnato dalle vicende politiche.