Resulting apoptosis and growth failure of the branchial arches
disrupt development of all its derivatives including the thymus.
Syndromes of the first and second branchial arches
, part 1: Embryology and characteristic defects.
11 These anomalies may arise from failure of fusion of the first pair of branchial arches
or a failure of mesodermal penetration into the midline of mandibular part of the first branchial arch presenting as a complete or incomplete cleft of the lower lip, mandible, and tongue with occasional associated deformities of soft tissue structures in the neck derived from the lower branchial arch.
As a complex heterogeneous alteration, patients showing its wide manifestations have received various diagnoses, such as Goldenhar Syndrome, oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum, syndrome of the first and second branchial arches
, craniofacial microsomia, and among others.
Gill rakers in Cetorhinus maximus are present on both sides of each of the five branchial arches
They then characterized changes in the shape and position of the craniofacial structures, such as jaws, branchial arches
, eyes, otic capsules and olfactory pits, through "geometric morphometric analysis," which measured positioning of a total of 32 landmarks on the top and bottom sides of the tadpoles.
Vascular rings result from the abnormal or incomplete regression of one of the 6 embryonic branchial arches
The embryological origin of CMCC has been disputed, but the most widely accepted explanation is failure of fusion of the branchial arches
in the midline.
The gills are formed by branchial arches
, constituting the gill filaments, which in turn contain primary and secondary gill lamellas.
Gill rakers, as well as minute toothed projections termed microbranchiospines, are attached to the branchial arches
For tailbud stage embryos (~stage 24), staining was observed in the branchial arches
, as well as along the dorsal midline in control and vehicle-alone conditions (Figure 8B) and in embryos exposed to nonylphenol (Figure 8D) or methoxychlor (data not shown).
In embryologic development, the first and second branchial arches
evolve to form not only the external ear but the bones of conduction in the middle ear, the mandible, and structures of the neck, he explained.
Prevention of retinoic acid-induced early craniofacial abnormalities by folinic acid and expression of endothelin-1/dHAND in the branchial arches
The development of the tongue starts at the fourth week of intrauterine life in the floor of the primitive cavity from the first three or four branchial arches
They arise as a result of an abnormal development of the branchial arches
and their corresponding ectoderm-lined branchial clefts.