pseudotaxus and Brachystegia spiciformis dominated the mature stands, while Erythrophleum africanum, Julbernardia paniculata, and Diplorhynchus condylocarpon characterized the medium-aged stands and old fallows.
Kwibisa  found Brachystegia spiciformis and Julbernardia paniculata as dominant tree species among the canopy of Zambian Miombo, while the understory was dominated by Combretum spp., Ochna schweinfurthiana, Pseudolachnostylis maprouneifolia, Diplorhynchus condylocarpon, Terminalia spp., and Burkea africana.
The mature forest plots were dominated by Brachystegia spiciformis, Burkea africana, Cryptosepalum exfoliatum subsp.
Higher altitudes in eastern and northern Zimbabwe, in neighboring Mozambique, and in the northern Transvaal (at 5,249-5,905.5 ft [1,600 -1,800 m]), in contact with the Afromontane forests of the mountain peaks, are dominated by open forest of Brachystegia spiciformis
, with Julbernardia globiflora, Faurea speciosa (Pro-teaceae), Ekebergia capensis (Meliaceae), Parinari curatellifolia (Chrysobalanaceae), and several species of Combretum and Terminalia (both Combretaceae).
The Kalahari sand zones are the most extensive and they support commercially valuable Baikiaea plurijuga woodlands associated with Pterocarpus angolensis, Recinodendron rautanenii, Burkea Africana, Brachystegia spiciformis
, Julbernadia globiflora, Terminalia sereca, Guibourtia coleosperma, Combretum species and Diplorynchus condylocarpon.
A similar observation was made by  in Swagaswaga Game Reserve in Kondoa, Tanzania, where selective cutting has exhausted valuable timber species leading to a shift towards cutting smaller diameter trees and less preferable ones like Brachystegia spiciformis
. However, the values of tree diversity indices indicate that both strata have high value of species richness at NFR.
Comparative photosynthesis in developing leaves of Brachystegia spiciformis
Accordingly, the objectives of this study were to (1) develop volume and AGB allometric equations for three dominant species (Brachystegia spiciformis
Benth., Combretum molle G.