47-48) found that (1) the families Bothidae
, Paralichthyidae, Achiridae and Cynoglossidae have longer upper and lower jaws on the blind side than on the eye side, (2) common to the Bothidae
and Paralichthyidae is to have a slight curvature of the mouth on both sides, and to share a similar number and size of teeth on the premaxilla and dentary on both sides and (3) common to the Achiridae and Cynoglossidae is to have a stronger curvature of the mouth on the blind side, more abundant teeth on the premaxilla and dentary of the blind side and few teeth or no teeth on the eye side.
A Systematic Monograph of the Flatfishes (Heterostomata), Psettodidae, Bothidae
, and Pleuronectidae, vol.
tade + + + + 26 Mugil cephalus -+ + + Family: Hemiramphidae 27 Hemiramphus sp -+ + - Family: Atherinidae 28 Pranesus pinguis + + + + Family: Carangidae 29 Carangoides malabaricus + + + + 30 Caranx sp 1 + + + + 31 Caranx sp 2 + + + + 32 Decapterus russelli + + + + 33 Scomberoides tol + + + + Family: Gerriedae 34 Gerrus oblongus + + + + Family: Teraponidae 35 Terapon jarbua + + + + Family: Scombridae 36 Scomberomorus sp + + + + Family: Pleuronectidae 37 Pleuronectid egg + + + - Family: Bothidae
38 Pseudorhambus javanicus -- + + Family: Soleidae 39 Solea ovata + + + + Family: Cynoglossidae 40 Cynoglossus arel + + + + 41 C.
Unfortunately there is only one direct behavioral anecdote of predation on the species reported here: a Japanese film crew in Lembeh, North Sulawesi, Indonesia, observed a large flounder (Bothidae
) attacking a Thaumoctopus individual and nearly swallowing it before regurgitating it (reason unknown).
First occurrence of speckletail flounder, Engyophrys sanctilaurentii Jordan & Bollman 1890 (Pisces: Bothidae
), in California.
spilopterus, and Etropus crossotus (Bothidae
), with notes on larval occurrence.
In northeastern Brazil, they were many fewer in number, compared with aggregations in southeastern Brazil, and they were composed of Myctophidae and Bothidae
and did not contain schools of Clupeiformes (Vaske et al.
PREYS %N %M %FO IRI %IRI TELEOSTEI# 3.2# 43.5# 14.7# 686.5# 7.2# Bothidae
(Bothus sp.) 0.0 1.7 0.3 0.4 - Unidentified teleosts 3.2 41.8 14.5 649.7 - CRUSTACEA# 92.9# 44.0# 65.0# 8,901.1# 92.8 Penaeidae 90.9 37.0 56.4 7,213.6 - Brachyura 0.1 0.3 0.5 0.2 - Portunidae 0.9 2.5 4.7 15.8 - Squillidae 0.0 0.1 0.3 0.0 - Unidentified crustaceans 1.0 4.1 3.2 16.3 - MOLLUSCA_CEPHALOPODA# 0.1# 0.5# 0.5# 0.3# <0.01# Unidentified cephalopods 0.1 0.5 0.5 0.3 - N%--numerical percentage; M%--mass percentage; FO%--frequency of occurrence percentage; IRI--index of relative importance; IRI%--percentage of IRI.
Regarding distribution of the sampled eggs per family, Engraulidae (89%) family is the dominant family and is followed by Clupeidae (8%), Labridae (1%) followed by other families which are less than 1% (Gadidae, Serranidae, Carangidae, Sparidae, Callionymidae, Mugilidae, Bothidae
and Soleidae) (Fig.
Porgie (family) Sparidae Oyster toadfish Opsanus tau Mackerel (family) Scombridae Lefteye flounder (family) Bothidae
Fish (superclass) Pisces Dusky flounder Syacium papillosum Drum (family) Sciaenidae Cero Scomberomorus regalis Broad flounder Paralichthys squamilentus Atlantic angel shark Squatina dumeril Yellow jack Caranx bartholomaei Whitespotted soapfish Rypticus maculatus Threadtail conger Uroconger syringinus Stingray (genus) Dasyatis sp.
Diel feeding pattern and diet of the Pacific sanddab, Citharichthys sordidus (Pisces: Bothidae