Tosti L (1911) History of Pope Boniface VIII
and His Times: With Notes and Documentary Evidence in Six Books.
The King demanded he resign, to which Boniface VIII
responded he would "sooner die".
Avant BenoEt XVI, le dernier pape a avoir demissionne de son plein gre fut Celestin V en 1294, mais son successeur, Boniface VIII
, l'avait place sous surveillance puis enferme.
He resigned five months later, giving way to Boniface VIII
, who had him imprisoned, fearful that people loyal to the former pope would provoke a schism.
He was a monk and resigned within four months to return to his monastery, but was imprisoned by his successor, Pope Boniface VIII
, to prevent his restoration.
He went on to live as a hermit, before being taken prisoner by his successor, Boniface VIII
. He was later made a saint.
Pope Boniface VIII
, for example, believed both swords should be in the hands of the church, that a medieval king should have no power other than that granted to him by the pope.
To deal with the question of papal authority first, Dante lived through the papacy of Boniface VIII
Next, Gaposchkin examines closely the canonization process in the early stages of the extended conflict between Philip IV and Pope Boniface VIII
. The final three-quarters of the book is then devoted to perceptions and uses of the saint in the fourteenth century, when the foundations were laid for representing Louis as a principal repository of French identity, but when he was also claimed by monks and by friars as supporting their own positions.
According to the author, Dante might also have heard some forms of composed polyphony, like conductus and motets, perhaps also during his stay at the papal court of Boniface VIII
Here he contributes to the growing body of primary texts available about the controversies between Philip IV of France and Pope Boniface VIII
in 1296-1303, by offering an edition, in Latin with his English translation on facing pages, of the only political tract penned by James (1255-1307), the Archbishop of Naples.
They touch on a wide range of topics: Dante's relations with Boniface VIII
and the Jubilee; his treatment of the Franciscans; a further look at Boniface VIII
, Dante and Jacopone da Todi; Dante's treatment of Purgatory; representations of the Church in the 'Heaven of the Sun'; a most interesting discussion of Dante's views of the Church and political thought in Monarchia; and, finally, how people have misread clerical and civic duty in Inferno XXIII.
Chapter 1 covers the medieval period from the papacy's alliance with the Carolingians beginning in the 750s, through the crisis of the tenth century, the Gregorian reform, the consolidation of papal monarchy in the aftermath of the investiture controversy, the conflict with the Hohenstaufen, the Crusades (foreign and domestic), and concludes with Boniface VIII
. While conceding that papal militancy during these years defies "simple explanation," two factors, nevertheless, stand above all others as the source of future papal belligerence: papal claims to universal authority and the administration of the territorial state.
Yet it seems odd that much of Giles' defense of clerical property has little to do with the taxation and jurisdiction issues that concerned Boniface VIII
. It could well be that the ideas of poverty in Jacopone da Todi's Lauds (such lauds 28, 31, 53, 59, 60) came to the attention of Giles through the Colonna or the defenders of the Celestinians (and related groups).
The fall of Acre in 1291, which rendered tenuous the Order's very reason for being; the financial straits of Philip IV of France in the face of an increasingly complex political machine; the debacle at Anagni in 1303, and the resulting death of Boniface VIII
, which for a time reduced the papacy to a puppet of French policy--all of these elements combine in Barber's work to undermine the traditional image of a degenerate order called to heel by a zealous (or a threatened) church.