The King demanded he resign, to which Boniface VIII
responded he would "sooner die".
Pope Boniface VIII
, for example, believed both swords should be in the hands of the church, that a medieval king should have no power other than that granted to him by the pope.
To deal with the question of papal authority first, Dante lived through the papacy of Boniface VIII
Next, Gaposchkin examines closely the canonization process in the early stages of the extended conflict between Philip IV and Pope Boniface VIII
According to the author, Dante might also have heard some forms of composed polyphony, like conductus and motets, perhaps also during his stay at the papal court of Boniface VIII
Here he contributes to the growing body of primary texts available about the controversies between Philip IV of France and Pope Boniface VIII
in 1296-1303, by offering an edition, in Latin with his English translation on facing pages, of the only political tract penned by James (1255-1307), the Archbishop of Naples.
Chapter 1 covers the medieval period from the papacy's alliance with the Carolingians beginning in the 750s, through the crisis of the tenth century, the Gregorian reform, the consolidation of papal monarchy in the aftermath of the investiture controversy, the conflict with the Hohenstaufen, the Crusades (foreign and domestic), and concludes with Boniface VIII
They touch on a wide range of topics: Dante's relations with Boniface VIII
and the Jubilee; his treatment of the Franciscans; a further look at Boniface VIII
, Dante and Jacopone da Todi; Dante's treatment of Purgatory; representations of the Church in the 'Heaven of the Sun'; a most interesting discussion of Dante's views of the Church and political thought in Monarchia; and, finally, how people have misread clerical and civic duty in Inferno XXIII.
Jacopone should not be seen as an incidental diversion in the papacy of Boniface VIII
as the Pope and his theological supporters developed an effective response to Philip the Fair's aggression.
The fall of Acre in 1291, which rendered tenuous the Order's very reason for being; the financial straits of Philip IV of France in the face of an increasingly complex political machine; the debacle at Anagni in 1303, and the resulting death of Boniface VIII
, which for a time reduced the papacy to a puppet of French policy--all of these elements combine in Barber's work to undermine the traditional image of a degenerate order called to heel by a zealous (or a threatened) church.
However meager, some biographical details about Dante go unchallenged: he was married, had children, fought in the military campaign of Campaldino against the Aretines (June 1289), enrolled in a guild (1295), began a political career, craved recognition, was notoriously litigious, and in 1302, while on an embassy to the papal court and thanks to the maneuvers of Pope Boniface VIII
, was exiled from his native city.
He was canonized by Pope Boniface VIII
in 1303 and his work, in particular The City of God, continues to provide inspired insights into the human condition afflicted by material desires and spiritual doubts.
Prior to Westphalia and the Protestant Reformation, a Papal Bull issued in 1302 by Boniface VIII
argued that the Pope was a higher authority than any temporal ruler.
As Celestine's successor, Boniface VIII
, might well have said: 'This tiara ain't big enough for the both of us
In 1299, Pope Boniface VIII
declared that pilgrims visiting Rome at the beginning of each century would receive pardons for all of their sins.