[9,10] The most vital biologic elements that can influence the bone and urinary bone markers were day and night variability and everyday changeability in bone metabolism
. Amount of bone turnover markers were most elevated in the early morning and least toward the evening and night.
The content of IGF-1 in human skeleton is high.13 Therefore, it can help bone metabolism
go on smoothly and promote the differentiation and proliferation of many kinds of cells, such as osteocytes.
Biochemical markers of bone metabolism
and prediction of fracture in elderly women, J Bone Miner Res.
The effect of estrogen is achieved by rapid activation of ER-mediated regulatory kinases. The lack of estrogen causes a marked increase in nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-?B) activity in osteoblasts. Estrogen deficiency leads to an imbalance in bone metabolism
between bone formation and resorption, eventually leading to osteoporosis.
Vitamin D is known to be essential for bone metabolism
, and low serum 25(OH)D levels increase the risk of rickets, osteomalacia, and osteopenia.
Their common coincidence has been largely attributed to shared risk factors; however, increasing evidence also points towards direct mechanistic interweavement between bone metabolism
, the vasculature, and the heart [1-4].
A close relationship between glucose and bone metabolism
has been reported [14-18].
Research shows that there are some signaling pathways involved in bone metabolism
, and the circadian clock is among them .
Due to its role in bone metabolism
, zinc can be a veiled connection for the prevention of osteoporosis.
Recently, remarkable benefits of n-3 PUFAs on bone metabolism
have been reported widely.
The LRP5 gene harbors naturally occurring coding polymorphisms which have been proposed to contribute to the normal population variance in bone metabolism
. (20-22) Also, mutations in the LRP5 gene have been shown to result in various single gene disorders with either a high or low BMD phenotype.
Exclusions included: diseases affecting bone metabolism
, cognitive impairment, drugs affecting bone metabolism
(bisphosphonates, selective estrogen receptor modulators, and corticosteroids), renal failure, hypercalcemia, nephrolithiasis, and decreased mobility (recent stroke recovery and Parkinson's disease).
Clinical and biochemical markers--including disease activity score, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin (a bone metabolism
marker that is elevated with low vitamin K status), C- reactive protein, and matrix metalloproteinase, an enzyme that degrades collagens and other tissue components correlated with systemic inflammation of rheumatoid arthritis--were assessed before and after the treatment period.
The nineteen papers review data on the intestinal absorption of fluoride, fluoride accumulation in crops and vegetables, teeth-saliva migration of fluoride ions, bone metabolism
and remodeling, PET bone scans, fluoride-induced oxidative stress in hippocampal cells and the liver, and preventing fluoride toxicity with selenium.
Consequently these bone markers seem to be partially related to the symptom profile for PANDAS-related OCD, probably by underlying autoimmune inflammatory processes, Supplements or vitamin D monotherapy may be useful for reducing psychiatric symptoms in patients with PANDAS OCDs, Further prospective, randomized, and controlled longitudinal studies are needed to define a clear association between vitamin D-related bone metabolism
and pediatric OCD,