Key words: amphibian, Anuran, COX1 gene, genetic analysis, Plains Spadefoot, Spea bombifrons
, species identification, Wyoming, Yellowstone National Park
bombifrons were collected by hand for parasitological examination.
bombifrons were infected with a cestode species (Table 1).
These animals include (alphabetically): Bootherium bombifrons (woodland musk ox), Castoroides ohioensis (giant beaver), Cervalces scotti (woodland caribou), and Platygonus compressus (woodland peccary) (e.g., Hay 1923; MacAlpin 1940; Skeels 1962; Wilson 1967; Dorr and Eschman 1971; Holman et al.
A late Wisconsinan woodland musk ox Bootherium bombifrons (Harlan) from Montcalm County, Michigan, with remarks on Michigan musk oxen.
, Bufo cognatus, and Rana caatesbeiana were heard least frequently (< 5% of total sites within known range).
For example, facultatively cannibalistic spadefoot toad tadpoles (Spea bombifrons
) ingest nonkin in preference to kin when the cannibal is satiated, but these tadpoles become less selective when food is limited (Pfennig et al.
Endoparasites of the Hurter's spadefoot, Scaphiopus hurterii and the Plains spadefoot, Spea bombifrons
(Anura: Scaphiopodidae), from southern Oklahoma.
These sites have produced approximately 4000 amphibian captures of six different species: one salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum) and five frogs (Rana sylvatica, Rana pipiens, Bufo cognatus, Pseudacris maculata, and Scaphiopus bombifrons
A possible analogue is the crossing--by mammoths (Mammuthus sp.), American mastodons (Mammut americanum), helmeted muskoxen (Bootherium bombifrons
), bison (Bison sp.) and other mammals--of large vegetated floodplains that evidently filled the Strait of Georgia about 30 000 to 20 000 BP in front of southerly moving glacial ice (Harington, 1975, 1996).
. Next, Pfennig played calls at either average frequency for S.
Two species (Spea bombifrons
and Heterodon nasicus) were observed exclusively in river-bottom habitats, whereas others (e.g., Diadophis punctatus, Bufo woodhousii, Acris crepitans) reached their highest abundance there.
Variation in advertisement calls and male mating success of Scaphiopus bombifrons
-- A third cranial record of the extinct musk ox, Bootherium bombifrons
(=Symbos cavifrons, Gidleya zuniensis, and synonyms), from Texas is described and illustrated.
The presence of Megalonyx jeffersonii at higher latitudes in the western part of its range than in the east parallels the distribution seen in the stag-moose Cervalces scotti, the giant beaver Castoroides ohioensis, and the helmeted muskox Bootherium bombifrons
. All of these taxa are also closely associated with Megalonyx in Pleistocene faunas from the eastern United States.