Encounters between bombardier beetles
and two species of toads (Bufo americanus, B.
To protect itself from enemies, a Bombardier Beetle
shoots out a hot, poisonous liquid with a loud POP
Effect of thermal and chemical components of bombardier beetle
chemical defense: glossopharyngeal response in two species of toads (Bufo americanus, Bufo marinus).
However, bombardier beetles are able to discharge their spray in as little as 90 milliseconds when sufficiently provoked, thus evading capture by toads (Dean et al.
Forsyth (1972) describes the spray nozzle as a "gaping aperture," at the ninth tergite (a plate of abdominal cuticle), or as a "short membranous tube" in different species of bombardier beetles.
Several bombardier beetles (most notably Brachinini) show the ability to direct their spray in almost any direction, accurately enough to target different limbs (what the attacker usually bites or grasps), as well as different leg segments of the same limb (Dean et al.
Biochemistry at 100[degrees] C: explosive secretory discharge of bombardier beetles (Brachinus).
Thermal concomitants and biochemistry of the explosive discharge mechanism of some little known bombardier beetles.
When another creature yanks on one of its legs or antennae, a bombardier beetle
contracts muscles in glands that store chemical reactants in separate compartments.
Famed naturalist Charles Darwin complained of a close encounter with a bombardier beetle
(could%20not%20bear%20to%20give%20up%20either%20of%20my%20Carabi,%20&%20to%20lose%20PanagA[bar]us%20was%20out%20of%20the%20question,%20so%20that%20in%20despair%20I%20gently%20seized%20one%20of%20the%20carabi%20between%20my%20teeth,%20when%20to%20my%20unspeakable%20disgust%20&%20pain%20the%20little%20inconsiderate%20beast%20squirted%20his%20acid%20down%20my%20throat%20&%20I%20lost%20both%20Carabi%20&%20PanagA[bar]us) in an 1846 letter to English clergyman and naturalist Leonard Jenyns .