The solution is to redefine the kelvin using a fixed constant of nature and the suggested method is to use the

Boltzmann constant.

with the transition probability [A.sub.ul], the statistical weight of the excited (emitting) state [g.sub.u] and its energy [E.sub.u], the emission wavelength [[lambda].sub.0], the radiators partial pressure p, the

Boltzmann constant [k.sub.B] and the partition function Q(T) for the given species.

[E.sub.a] is the activation energy, and k = 8.61 x [10.sup.-5] eV/K is the

Boltzmann constant which is the physical constant relating energy at the individual particle level with temperature observed at the collective or bulk level.

The goal of PTB's portion of the program is a precise determination of the

Boltzmann constant k, the conversion factor between thermal and mechanical energy.

where [J.sub.sat] is the saturation current density, q is the electron charge, [V.sub.f] is the forward voltage, [eta] is the parametric constant describing the proportion of diffusion and recombination currents, [k.sub.b] is the

Boltzmann constant, and T is the absolute temperature.

* Stefan

Boltzmann constant ([sigma]): 5.67x[10.sup.-8] W/[m.sup.2] [K.sup.4]

where k it the

Boltzmann constant and T is the temperature.

In class, Vincenti had derived the famous Boltzmann relation, S = k log W which relates the entropy, S, of a gas to the

Boltzmann constant, k, and W, the number of possible microstates for gas molecules.

The constant A (=nq/kT) represents the voltage sensitivity in terms of gating charge as the equivalent number (n) of electron charges (q) moving through the membrane, k is the

Boltzmann constant, and T is the absolute temperature.

Each configuration of the system is defined by the Boltzmann probability factor P([r.sub.i])=exp {-E([r.sub.i])/kT}, where each configuration is defined by the set of atomic positions [r.sub.i], and P([r.sub.i]) is the probability of a configuration [r.sub.i], E([r.sub.i]) is the energy (in joules) of the system, [K.sub.B] is the

Boltzmann constant (in joules/[degrees]K), and T is temperature in degrees Kelvin.

[C.sub.1] is expressed as (2) [2C.sub.1] = v kT where v is network-chain density and k is the

Boltzmann constant. The plot followed by equation (1) is shown in figure 7.

where [rho]n = N/V, N is the number of molecules in the gas, V is the volume, a = 4[sigma]/c is the radiation constant, k is the

Boltzmann constant, [sigma] is the Stefan-Boltzmann constant, T is the temperature, and c the speed of light.

The so-called Tsallis entropy and density matrix are given, respectively, as [S.sub.q] = [k.sub.B] Tr([rho] - [[rho].sup.q])/(q-1) and [rho] = [exp.sub.q] (-E/T)/[Z.sub.q], where [k.sub.B] is the

Boltzmann constant (set to 1 for simplicity next), q describes the degree of nonextensivity, and [Z.sub.q] is the corresponding generalized partition function.