A new order came about amidst fierce struggles, as assorted nationalist groups fought each another and the Bolsheviks
. Fear of Judeo-Bolshevism stirred several European nations to pass discriminatory legislation against Jews, who came under increasing surveillance by various European governments.
Timed to appear precisely on the 100 anniversary of the Bolshevik
Revolution, 25 October 2017, Tsuyoshi Hasegawa's monograph provides a fresh perspective on an already much studied event.
Initially, the Bolsheviks
in Russia hoped that, inspired by their bold seizure of power, the powerful working-class movements in Central and Western Europe would be encouraged to rise up in a similar manner.
It is unlikely that Nicholas would have been ousted, then later murdered by the Bolsheviks
, had he only kept his country out of the First World War.
came to power at a time of all-consuming crisis; by comparison, it is hard to imagine today's economically advanced countries reaching the brink of major revolution.
The Bolivian working class firmly believed, quite like the Bolsheviks
in Russia, that only the capture of power by force, by the working class, could bring the democratic revolution to fruition and this seizure of power was linked with the ideals to socialism.
The author, an American historian, has mustered an array of sources, besides her conversations with Shlyapnikov's three children: his reminiscences, diary entries, and correspondence with Bolsheviks
, including Lenin; trade-union records; notes from Workers' Opposition meetings; the diaries of Alexandra Kollontai, the woman with whom he had a romance (1911-1916); and party and state archives.
Some Petrograd Soviet leaders wished to cooperate with the Provisional Government, including some leading Bolsheviks
, but the Bolsheviks
in general--As the presumptive representatives of workers, peasants, and soldiers--withheld their support from what they considered the "bourgeois" Provisional Government.
The first group, named SYREN, was to take over security of Murmansk and help push back the advancing Bolsheviks
. The second group, named ELOPE, was to land with SYREN but then head south by land to Archangel and establish another defensive zone.
Soviet historians--from Moscow and Leningrad and out in the provinces--studied the replications of central patterns of dual power, the rise of the soviets, and the increase in popular support for the Bolsheviks
. (1) Western scholars were generally more divided in their interpretation of 1917.
, Boyars and the Persistence of Tradition, Yale, New Haven, CT, 2013.
But this is also the story of the Soviet Union's early days, when it seemed highly implausible that a cabal of Bolsheviks
would rule the Russian empire for seventy-odd years.
Ironically, the ascendant force, the Bolsheviks
, adhered to an ideology intent on destruction of Imperial Russia but, in the end, actually reincarnated the Russian Empire under a new name.
However, Weissman is right to note that the Bolsheviks
' 'immediate goal' was not 'to establish a monopoly on state power' but it was for the party to seize state power and so it was not the civil war which 'led to their developing party power rather than soviet power'.
Speaking with young Russians at the Seliger youth camp in July 2013, President Putin raised the issue of Russia's role in WWI, and blamed the Bolsheviks
for how Russia left the war.