In Elam, there were many Boeotians
who had been driven from their homes during the campaign of Xerxes against Greece.
He includes information on such interesting topics as the use of a primitive flamethrower by attacking Boeotians
during the siege of Delium (424 B.C., during the Peloponnesian War) and the development of "Greek Fire" by the Byzantine engineer Kallinokos.
Among the Boeotians
, the debtor sat in the marketplace, holding a
If we accept the opinion of many scholars that this is a vaticinium post eventum, the oracle must have been delivered in 487, since Aegina was conquered by Athens in 457/6 B.C., when, as a result of the Athenian victory over the Boeotians
at Oenophyta, Aegina was forced to join the Delian League on harsh conditions.(62) If Singor(63) is right in arguing that the expression [GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (5.81) refers to an all-out war in which everything was allowed, this characterization would perfectly fit the events of 487, as described in 6.85 93.
A colleague of the Phocian general Philomelus, he led the Phocian withdrawal from central Greece after the Boeotians
and the Amphictyonic Council defeated them at Neon (late 354); appointed commander in chief after Philomelus' death, he used the Delphic treasury to hire mercenaries and to buy the support of Lycophron of Pherae (near Velestinon); campaigned successfully in Locris, Doria, and Boeotia at the head of a large army (353); made alliances with Sparta, Athens, Corinth, and Achaea; defeated and killed by Philip II of Macedon, champion of the Amphictyonic League, at the battle of Volo (352).
His reason for writing a Life of Lucullus is driven by patriotism (Cimon 2.3), and he derides Herodotus for his denigration of the Boeotians
(On the Malice of Herodotus 854E) and also prefers, as Jones states, "patriotism to impartiality" (1971, 88).
Thucydides felt strongly that Sparta had invaded the Athenian countryside in spring 431 because "they feared the growth of the power of the Athenians, seeing most of Hellas already subject to them" Of course, there were various other more immediate pretexts for war--Athens had imposed economic sanctions against Megara, a Spartan ally; both sides sought to draw a neutral island of Corcyra into their respective alliances; they each quarreled over the loyalty of the key northern city of Potidaea; the Boeotians
wished to eliminate the outpost city of Plataea that brought fear of Athenian imperialism to their doorstep.
('Under his command the Lacedaemonians fought the battle of Leuctra against the Boeotians
. Cleombrotus behaved himself bravely on that occasion, but fell at the beginning of the battle').
The decisive argument is surely the announcement that sends Lamachos off to the Boeotian
front; for the city the war is still going on, and indeed the Boeotians
are deviously timing their attack to coincide with the time of the Choes (1073-7).
The Corinthians and the Boeotians
showed what they thought of it by refusing to join in the campaign, but the rest sheepishly took part.
In the midst of devastating war, the Athenians decided to turn and defeat Sparta's Boeotian
allies to the north.
Local risings in various cities had been secretly arranged to coincide with and distract the Boeotian
army from a major assault on the important city of Delium, near the border of Attica and the sea coast, which it was hoped might become an Athenian epiteichismos.