Based on previous findings (e.g., Tiggemann & Kuring, 2004), we predicted that women would demonstrate higher levels of body surveillance, body shame, appearance anxiety, disordered eating, and depression than would men, but would demonstrate lower levels of awareness of internal states and flow than would men (Hypothesis 1).
The survey items were designed to measure, in the following order, body surveillance, the psychological consequences of self-objectification (body shame, appearance anxiety, internal awareness, and flow), and the outcome variables of disordered eating and depressed mood.
For example, Asian and Hispanic women have body dissatisfaction and body shame due to their failure to achieve Western ideals of beauty and thinness (Gil-Kashiwabara, 2002; Mok, 1998).
Studies have shown younger than older women are at greater risk for higher body shame and eating disorder symptomatology (e.g., McKinley, 1999; Tiggemann & Lynch, 2001).
Independent samples t-tests were conducted to analyze the differences between the means for heterosexual and homosexual men for the measures: MBID, DMS, and OBC (body shame and body surveillance).
As predicted, higher levels of body surveillance and body shame (OBC factors) were correlated with higher levels of both masculine body image distress and drive for muscularity (see Table 2).
While empirical research on women has shown that younger than older women experience more body shame and a consequent increase in disordered eating (McKinley, 1999; Tiggemann & Lynch, 2001), no such research exists for men.
The purpose of the present exploratory study was to test a path model that included sexual orientation along with body shame, BMI, weight discrepancy and age as risk factors for eating disorder symptomatology, shown in Figure 1.
For example, McKinley (1999) found that body shame had significant negative correlations with multiple dimensions of psychological well-being, including autonomy, environmental mastery, personal growth, positive relations, purpose in life, and self-acceptance, whereas body surveillance had significant negative relationships with most dimensions, such as autonomy, environmental mastery, personal growth, purpose in life, and self-acceptance.
High scores on Body Shame reflect feelings about the body that are consistent with cultural norms (e.g., feeling unsexy if overweight) and increased shame.
The psychological construct identified in objectified body consciousness theory comprises three dimensions: constant monitoring of how one's body looks (body surveillance), internalization of cultural body standards (body shame
), and the belief that one's appearance can be controlled (appearance control beliefs).
As hypotheses contained both a between (group) and a within (pre and postmeasures) independent variable, a series of 2 x 2 mixed design factorial ANOVAs were conducted in order to compare the pre and post Self-esteem, Body satisfaction, Body surveillance, Body shame
, and Body image quality of life across groups.
Washington D.C [USA], Apr 20 ( ANI ): Days after causing an outrage amongst netizens with her 60kg-limit suggestion to would-be fashion show attendees, Malaysian fashion critic Zaihani Mohd Zain has said that she didn't mean to body shame
"Most felt intense body shame
and had unsatisfying sex lives until they began to embody fat pride," Gailey said.
Over time, those women who join the group also show higher levels of body shame