Scientists have thus been forced to look for alternatives for donated blood, which are called artificial blood substitutes
, artificial haemoglobin or haemoglobin based oxygen carriers (HBOC).
In India, one unit of blood (350-400 cc) costs around Rs 500-800, while this blood substitute
will cost approximately10-12 per cent less than that.
Still, in first response situations where death is imminent due to blood loss, the humane course of action is to administer the blood substitute
. To safeguard against abuses, the experimental protocol should detail the conditions under which informed consent is waived.
While previous efforts to develop a human blood substitute
have been unsuccessful due to toxicity issues, researchers at Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, are attempting to develop what could be the world's first viable substitute for human blood, as scientists have been able to identify and then nullify the source of toxicity.
Innovative approaches to developing a potential blood substitute
involves expertise in any combination of biotechnology, physiology, biophysics, biochemistry, chemical engineering, enzyme engineering, biomedical engineering, genetic engineering, clinical medicine, chemistry, and polymer chemistry.
The Defense Department has spent decades and millions of dollars in pursuit of the Holy Grail of trauma medicine: a blood substitute
that doesn't have to be refrigerated (battlefield conditions don't allow that) and that doesn't have to be matched by blood type (a process that can take more than an hour).
The development of a blood substitute
that not only carries oxygen, but also increases the level of red blood cells, could have broad applications in medicine, especially trauma, elective surgery, acute anemia, cancer and heart disease."
It is the first study in the US in which treatment with a blood substitute
begins at the scene of injury.
is the leader in developing an oxygen- carrying blood substitute
, PolyHeme(r), for the treatment of urgent, large volume blood loss in trauma and resultant surgical settings.
Combination therapy with a blood substitute
and erythropoietin can save critically ill patients whose religious beliefs don't permit blood transfusion, said Dr.
In preclinical development, Sonus is also developing S-2646, a reformulation of a cardiac drug for the treatment of rapid, life-threatening heart rhythms; and S-9156, a synthetic blood substitute
* A new human blood substitute
made from healthy, U.S.-raised cattle has been approved for use in South Africa.
They first published work on a recombinant hemoglobin for use as a blood substitute
in NATURE in 1990.
The pigs were given a blood substitute
to bring them back from certain death and resuscitated.
SYBD currently is developing three products: Oxycyte(TM), a perfluorocarbon-based blood substitute
and therapeutic oxygen carrier; Fluorovent(TM), a perfluorocarbon liquid ventilation product; and an implantable glucose biosensor for continuous monitoring of blood glucose levels in diabetics.