The mean external radius of a Black-legged Kittiwake
nest is 12 cm, but that of a Red-legged Kittiwake nest is only 9 cm (Byrd and Williams 1993).
In the Black-legged Kittiwake
, several behavioral observations explain the results of predictions 1, 2, and 3.
Key words: black-legged kittiwake
, Rissa tridactyla, Arctic, population trend
Furthermore, studies of the Glaucous-winged Gull Larus glaucescens and the Black-legged Kittiwake
have showed that females rearing enlarged broods increased their effort, lost more mass, and had lower survival to the next breeding season (Reid 1987, Jacobsen et al.
Size and productivity of Black-legged Kittiwake
colonies in Prince William Sound before and after the Exxon Valdez oil spill.
Status of High Arctic Black-legged Kittiwake
(Rissatridactyla) Colonies in Barrow Strait, Nunavut, Canada.
Such a conclusion is consistent with the high wing loading of the Northern Fulmar compared with that of seabirds normally using flapping flight, such as the Black-legged Kittiwake
or Herring Gull (Larus argentatus).
The black-legged kittiwake
probably acts as a "catalyst" species in the Barents Sea area, and the murres might be guided to the prey aggregations by the conspicuous flocks of foraging kittiwakes.
Key words: marine birds, northern fulmar, Fulmarus glacialis, black-legged kittiwake
, Rissa tridactyla, thick-billed murre, Uria lomvia, dovekie, Alle alle, marginal ice zone, Barents Sea
Glaucous, Thayer's, Iceland and Sabine's gulls fly in from the arctic; great black-backed gulls, laughing gulls and black-legged kittiwakes
come from the east coast; California and Franklin's gulls arrive from the prairies and points farther west; and black-headed gulls migrate from Europe and the Canadian Maritimes.
I will be investigating these ideas in two species of long-lived seabirds, thick-billed murres (Uria lomvid) and black-legged kittiwakes
(taateraaqs, Rissa tridactyld).
Sarah Leclaire from the Centre national de la recherche scientifique at the UniversitAe Paul Sabatier in France and her team investigated the body odor in preen gland secretions and preen down feathers in a population of black-legged kittiwakes
nesting in the Gulf of Alaska.
A cruise around the seabird rookery, Gull Island, is a bird-lover's dream as large numbers of tufted puffins, horned puffins, pigeon guillemots, black-legged kittiwakes
, glaucous-winged gulls and common murres flit on and off its cliffs.
The population of black-legged kittiwakes
may be lower for several areas of study, a situation not necessarily true amongst other Laridae such as the western gull.
For instance, populations of black-legged kittiwakes
have declined by more than 50% in the North Sea since 1990.