Variable Description [mathematical expression not reproducible] A

binary variable to indicate whether link [e.sub.i,j] is on the path from original node s to core SDN node for traffic demand [t.sub.s].

[E.sub.a,m]: a

binary variable, representing whether time interval m [member of] {1, 2, ..., M} is the end date of construction on link a [member of] [L.sub.1].

We first create a set of

binary variables that describe the different generic derivative strategies without considering whether it is the dominant strategy (firms often use two or more of the generic strategies in combination).

(2) Third, researchers have employed alternative techniques to model the water view amenity, including

binary variables, linear distance, and viewshed analysis.

It can be observed from (13) that [mathematical expression not reproducible] is a nonlinear formulation consisting of the product of a bounded continuous variable and a

binary variable, which can be equivalent to the following linear constraints:

For t [member of] {1,2, ..., T}, [x.sub.t], [y.sub.t], and [z.sub.t] denote the

binary variables such that

In the first formulation, variables include (i) the starting time variables, which show the starting time of activates, (ii) sequential

binary variables indicating whether an activity is processed after another activity, and (iii) flow variables indicating the amount of a particular resource transferred from one activity to another.

Moreover, education alone appears to explain the (native-born) White-Hispanic underemployment gap, with our

binary variable for native-born Hispanics dropping from significance in model 2.

Column 1 in Table 2 shows the cost of bank loans with the post-sanction

binary variable as the independent variable.

where D is a

binary variable for excess zeros, such that D = 1 for excess zeros.

ind_exp _dum is a

binary variable which equals one if the firm sells domestically and indirectly exports, while dir_exp _dum is a

binary variable that equals one if the firms sells domestically and directly exports.

The relationships between p16 and the clinicopathological parameters were derived from the

binary variable data extracted from the original articles.

Note that one-of-N and thermometer encoding transforms each categorical value into a true-false

binary variable. This can significantly increase the total number of variables, which in turn decreases the effectiveness of many clustering techniques (Rangarajan S K et al., (2004)).

The second dependent variable is financial records, measured as a

binary variable equal to 1 if the enterprise keeps all business records in a book of accounts or ledger book and 0 otherwise.

In such cases, we can proceed the same as in the case of

binary variable, to giving equal distance values: 0, 1, 2, 3...