For example, Brown sets out to argue in his discussion that along with Biblical Hebrew ha + lo', there also existed an interjection *halu' which he declares "is an exact cognate of Ugaritic hl, Old Aramaic hlw (= Biblical Aramaic 'aluw ...), and EA allu." (42) Setting aside for the moment the latter two proposed etymologies, the syllabic rendering of Ugaritic hlny attests an /i/ vowel following the l, and not the asseverative /u/ vowel.
A number of scholarly voices have also made appeals to the Aramaic asseverative particles hlw (Old Aramaic, Jewish Aramaic [Tg Neof]) and >aluw (Biblical Aramaic) as further evidence against the traditional etymology of the Hebrew particle halo'.
Despite great effort, grammarians have been unable to explain the verbal system of biblical Aramaic
through standard categories of tense and aspect.
(34) SG PL 1 -nna-ni nna-ni 2M -nna-k n-koon 2F 3M nne-h 3F nn-ah It rather appears that in Biblical Aramaic the -n is variable, in the sense applied in Table 5 below.
Finally, it should be noted that Williams (1972: 84) lists a number of examples of the -n on verbs without pronoun objects in Phoenecian, Old and Biblical Aramaic, and Ugaritic (see n.
A segol in Biblical Aramaic
can stand for an original /a/ as well.
A less frequent variant of the suffix -n is the longer form *-na, which is attested in Maltese, where forms both with and without final -a occur, and in Aramaic, particularly in Old, Egyptian, Biblical Aramaic
, and Syriac.
One of the most vexing problems discussed is the development of the genitival exponents in the modern Arabic dialects, paralleling Akkadian sa, Hebrew sel, Ge'ez za-, and Biblical Aramaic
Students of the Hebrew Bible are regularly required to study a semester of Biblical Aramaic
to enable them to read the Aramaic portions in Ezra and Daniel.
Apart from Biblical Aramaic
this phonetic trait also occurs in Standard Literary Babylonian Aramaic.
The work under review is the latest addition to Harrassowitz's well-known Porta Linguarum Orientalium series, edited by Werner Diem and Franz Rosenthal, which has given us such fine grammars as Rosenthal's Biblical Aramaic
, Heinz Grotzfeld's Syrian Arabic, Wolfdietrich Fischer's Classical Arabic, and Joshua Blau's Biblical Hebrew.
Such usages also occur in Old Aramaic, Hebrew, and elsewhere in Biblical Aramaic
. For example, sym, "to set, put," in Old Aramaic and Hebrew can mean "to make, transform, convert" (KAI 222C:19-20, 23; Josh 6:18; Isa 41:15; 42:16, et al.).(2) Further, in Biblical Aramaic
sim (Dan 2:5) and [s.sup.e]wah, "to set" (Dan 3:29), function passively with double-objects to denote the destruction of houses, "your/his house(s) shall be made into rubble." The example that most nearly resembles those in Daniel, however, comes from the Hebrew asah, "to make," in Neh 9:31 (also Nah 1:8; Zeph 1:18).
iqar proverbs (ibid.), but also in Nabataean, in Palmyrene, and in the ketib of Biblical Aramaic
, while the spelling of Early Aramaic texts simply prevents us from making any distinction.
The authors have also marked lemmata as Biblical Aramaic
, Babylonian Talmudic Aramaic, and Late Jewish Literary Aramaic.
Kaufman, An Aramaic Bibliography, part I: Old, Official, and Biblical Aramaic
. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University, 1992.