In Tables 7 and 8, we can see again that PRIDIT-FRE estimates accurately the population fraud rates with small MSE and the count method estimates the biased sample
Clearly this restriction leads to a biased sample
. The wage functions estimated with the PSID sample are limited to those that earned positive wages.
In this paper we will initially discuss the ways in which biased histories produce a biased sample
In any case, critics would likely argue that he had looked at a biased sample
, because all of the triangles examined were collected from the Mediterranean region.
This biased sample
did not include patients who remained in the community with their families, doing well enough not to need hospitalization.
From this simulated population of one hundred ratings per physician, two different samples were selected: a random sample, and a biased sample
. In order to select a sample comparable to the observed sample, and simulate the bias posited to underlie the observed data, simulated patients were selected to be "respondents" for the biased sample
in such a way that the more satisfied a patient was, the more likely that patient was to be included.
In challenging the representativeness of our sample, Hardigree and Anderson state that "bias is suspected because there was no element of randomness in the selection process." It does not automatically follow that the companies used in our study represented a biased sample
. We observe that similar stocks to those included in our sample are used by Standard & Poor, Dow Jones, and A.
Some higher ed institutions already collect employment information from graduates, but varying response rates can produce biased samples
, says Neha Dalal, the institute's program and operations coordinator.
In their 2015 paper, Ryan and colleagues made the probability of treatment increase with the preperiod mean outcome, so the treated and control groups were biased samples
from the same population.
Excluding such nonrandom or biased samples
, fewer than 10 of the 74 studies remain.
Most reports that link criminal violence with ASD are based on isolated case reports or on biased samples
that use unreliable diagnostic criteria.
Such simulations are particularly helpful if they work even with poor or biased samples
of data, he says.