After briefly entertaining the possibility that the dialect base for the phonology represented in the Zhongyuan yinyun was centered in Henan, as the title of the book would suggest, he concludes that "it is most closely related to that of the Beijing dialect
In linguistic practice, the Beijing dialect emerged as a serious competitor to a southern form of Mandarin not during the Ming dynasty but only since the Qing Qianlong era during the eighteenth century.
Two major educational conferences that were held at the provincial and central-levels in the spring and summer of that year had tackled the issue and determined that a unified national pronunciation should be devised on the basis of the Beijing dialect. (38) Yet, significantly, the resolution of the central-level committee determined that the ru tone should be included.
But the four tones of the Beijing dialect do not have a clearly discernable ru tone, which must urgently be corrected.
[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] The editors collectively played down the significance of the changes to Guoyin in the Explanatory Introduction to the Tzyhhuey, while also playing up the prestige of the Beijing dialect, attributing to it the status of a long-standing historical standard: (68)
Guanhua in traditional times in fact was, for most Chinese, not based on the Beijing dialect but was an abstract ideal that allowed for a variety of interpretations depending on one's background, yet for which the prestige form was generally understood to be centered on the southern Mandarin of the Jiangnan region.
On the other hand, Elisabeth Kaske points out that the result was not really a victory for supporters of the Beijing dialect (2008: 413), which conclusion is clearly borne out by its mixed nature.
Furthermore, he suggested that modern Beijing dialect was a descendant of that pidgin (Hashimoto 1986).
But since Standard Chinese (a standard based on modern Beijing dialect) has only a handful of words that can be identified as loans from other languages, these for the most part being Buddhist religious terms from Sanskrit and technical and scientific terms from English, most still think of Chinese as proceeding in an almost pure genetic line from Old Chinese through Middle Chinese and on to Modern Chinese.
The question becomes: as this large group of people switched from Manchu to speaking Chinese what effect, if any, did it have on their new native language (i.e., northern Chinese), particularly within the Beijing dialect, which subsequently became the model for the standard language in all of China.
A look at the Beijing fangyan cidian (Dictionary of the Beijing Dialect) and the Hanyu wailaic cidian (Dictionary of Foreign Words in Chinese) yields a list of approximately two hundred possible loanwords.
There were, however, a number of words borrowed into the Beijing dialect which appear in Qing-dynasty texts, then subsequently disappear when the dynasty ends (see section "Manchu loans into Chinese," below).