But what is never acknowledged is that many of these publications which mushroomed in the 1990s, after the genocide of Batutsi
, were funded by individuals whose clear aim was to muddy the waters about the planning and execution of the genocide.
First, it treats the meta-narrative founded in the 'Hamite myth' which defends the supremacy of the Batutsi.
The Banyarwanda whom the first European explorers and missionaries encountered were divided into three sub-groups: the Bahutu, the Batutsi and the Batwa.
The Batutsi (or the elite among them) were chosen by the new rulers, colonialists and missionaries, to promote 'Western civilization founded on Christianity'.
While Seligman insisted on the Caucasian origin of the Hamites, those among the Catholic and Protestant missionaries who were ethnologists worked hard to show that the Batutsi (the 'Hamite race') had brought with them from Asia, Egypt and then Ethiopia those elements of the civilization that were deemed valuable, including the cows.
Obviously, the Batutsi who are related to the Abyssinians, arrived a long time ago after the other races.
For Father Delmas, the Hamites of Rwanda themselves divide into four categories: the true nobles descending from sky; the hybrids of the indigenous Bahutu rulers and the Hamites; the nobles of unknown clans; the Batutsi of foreign origin.
Classe, head of the Roman Catholic Church in Rwanda (1907-1945, bishop since 1922), wrote: "The Batutsi are superb men, with straightforward and regular features, with something of the Aryan and Semitic type".
Therefore, the Batutsi in Rwanda and Burundi who constituted the ruling group must have come from somewhere else outside the Great Lakes region.
The Banyarwanda, whether the Bahutu, Batutsi or Batwa, have historically been harmonious, have shared the same culture, religion, speak the same language, and have always intermarried and lived side by side on the same hill sides.
The net result of the ideology preached by the colonialists was that the Bahutu and Batutsi became two different races, the former being inferior to the latter.
The waves of killings of the Batutsi in Rwanda since 1959 and the ensuing exile mobilised them and motivated them to return to their homeland, through negotiations and eventually by force when negotiations failed.
During the 19th century, other tribal groups like the Batutsi
and Bahutu began to encroach upon the forest, cultivating the land.