The detection of this baryonic matter
will tend to lend strong support to MOND as opposed to DM theories.
McGaugh said that their work indicates that the largest bound structures, rich clusters of galaxies, have 14 percent of ordinary baryonic matter
, close to expected 17 percent.
Some contend that it could be Baryonic matter
tied up in brown dwarfs or in chunks of massive compact halo objects "or MACHOs" [10,11], but the common prejudice is that dark matter is not baryonic, and that it is comprised of particles that are not part of the "standard model" of particle physics.
Assuming that the dark matter is cold--that is, that in the early universe it consisted of particles that moved much slower than the speed of light--then gravity caused high-density regions to coalesce into halos (clouds) of dark matter and ordinary atomic matter (which physicists call baryonic matter
, because most of its mass comes from baryons--protons and neutrons in atomic nuclei).
Moreover, this proposal is not in conflict with the existing theories, because it does not claim that whole of the measured "cosmological red-shift" is due to this "cumulative-phase-alteration-mechanism"; some 5% of the red-shift must be really due to "metric-expansion-of-space", reducing requirement of total-mass-of-the-universe to the observable baryonic matter
, making it sufficient for the required "closer-density".
However (5) is strongly violated by the data: the observed baryonic matter
density is some 20 times smaller than [[rho].
In other words, the normal baryonic matter
in the expanding universe was fully ionized, because the electrons were not attached to the atomic nuclei.
But the ratio goes up in smaller cosmic structures--to the point that in dwarf galaxies, such as NGC 4163 pictured below, the ratio of dark matter to baryonic matter
(stars, gas, and everything else) can exceed 100 to 1.
3], with only a 5% contribution from known baryonic matter
flowed along the filaments, drawn by gravity into the massive halos, where it assembled into gas clouds.
The baryonic matter
in a single QCM quantization state produces the correct rotational velocity for the cluster.
interacts with radiation not only via gravity but also via electromagnetic and other forces.
And nonbaryonic matter, whatever it may be, outweighs baryonic matter
in the universe by another 6 times.
In turn, this implies that the ratio of detectable baryonic matter
to all matter averages about 0.
Some 21 percent is unknown, nonbaryonic dark matter, with ordinary baryonic matter
(matter made of atoms) making up the last 4 percent.