Thereafter, the X:A ratio provides a signal that directs sexual fate and does so by binding competitively the promoter of the sex-determination switch gene xol-1 with X-signal elements (XSE = several genes located on the X-chromosome that are expressed early) and autosomal-signal elements (=genes located on autosomes
also expressed early).
The F-ratios were computed at 1-cM intervals across the 18 autosomes
To summarize, most of the patients previously described had translocations between the X chromosome and autosomes
4, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18.
In Ectadia, similarly to phaneropterids in another genus of the tribe Elimaeini, Elimaea, and in the related Ducetia, the ancestral chromosome number is reduced to 2n=29 (X0), including one tandem fusion between two pairs of autosomes
, all chromosomes being acrocentric (e.
Potential paralogous contigs located on either chromosome 18 or chromosome 21 (target chromosomes) and alternative autosomes
(reference chromosomes) were identified by sampling each target chromosome at 10-bp intervals in 100-bp segments.
The other biarmed and acrocentric autosomes
are arranged according to their size, respectively.
the mean number of Q-HRs per individual; (3) the frequency of Q-HRs in seven Q-polymorphic autosomes
in the population.
Because the present study was performed on autosomes
only, we cannot rule out genetic differences between strains on the sex chromosomes related to the regulation of sex factors on Pprc1.
Such a size difference between sex chromosomes and autosomes
is unusual in Lepidoptera, and was described in detail only in some species of the family Tortricidae (Sichova et al.
The large Y chromosome in both species likely represents centric fusion between an autosome
and a morphologically cryptic Y chromosome, giving rise to a situation of multiple sex chromosomes: [X.
The normal human contains 46 chromosomes in the cell nucleus out of which forty four are autosomes
and rest two are sex chromosomes X and Y.
1964) and FNs were computed considering autosomes
and sexual chromosomes.
The diploid number (2n), fundamental number (NF), and fundamental autosomal number (NFa) along with the shape of autosomes
and sex chromosomes were also determined.
But the deeper branches since discovered are entirely African, the same pattern which the mtDNA and autosomes
Karyotyping of mouse chromosome revealed that chromosome number in mice is 40 (19 autosomes
and X and Y sex chromosome).