At 5 million total reads, all autosomes
except chromosomes 2, 10, and 14 showed significant differences in CV between the [PCR.
Canis familiaris female's karyotype has a chromosome number of 78, consisting of 39 chromosome pairs of which 38 are autosomes
(acrocentric) and the remaining pair are sex chromosomes XX (metacentric) (Figure 1A).
The current study however, focuses not on the autosomes
but on the remaining pair of chromosomes, known as sex chromosomes.
All 47 test samples were correctly classified for the autosomes
and the sex chromosomes.
The reference human genome is contained in one copy of each of the 22 autosomes
and the 2 sex chromosomes (X and Y).
The characteristics controlling the sperm head shape are carried on the autosomes
and sperm abnormality test identifies those agents which cause small alterations in testicular DNA (Topham 1980).
Hence, the two mutants are present on different autosomes
and they segregate independently.
Widespread Monoallelic Expression on Human Autosomes
, 318 SCIENCE 1136, 1136-40 (2007).
The poker-chip analogy may be highly simplistic, but certainly the DNA that comprises our human genome could be visualized as a stack of 3 billion poker-chips of just 4 colors, representing the 4 different nucleotides comprising the DNA polymer (or more precisely, 24 stacks of different heights, since the DNA is packaged into chromosomes: 22 autosomes
, and the X and Y sex-chromosomes).
Mosaicism of autosomes
and sex chromosomes in morphologically normal, monospermic preimplantation human embryos.
The mammalian X and Y chromosomes are believed to have evolved from one pair of autosomes
The Andean specimens present C-heterochromatic blocks in most of their 22 chromosomes, whereas non-Andean specimens have only 4-7 autosomes
The first pair of autosomes
is acrocentric and distinctly larger, but the rest of the autosomes
form a graded series from medium to small-sized acrocentric elements.
Molecular geneticists have discovered that male sex determination is extremely complex and relies on critical genes not just on the Y, but also on the autosomes
(non-XY) and even the X chromosome.
Twenty-two of these pairs are the autosomes
, while the remaining pair, the X and Y chromosome, are the sex chromosomes.