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(12.) The Asvins are never called asura, and Usas is only once linked with asuratva (RV X 55,4)--all of them minor deities.
In the light of the detailed attention that is paid here to structure and style, some RV poems turn out to be quite as elaborately and finely crafted as any composed in the Classical Sanskrit language: these include II.39 to the Asvins with its series of puns; V.63 to Mitra and Varuna with its patterns of phonological repetition: and perhaps V.44, which was described by Geldner as "the most difficult hymn in the RV," and where Jamison and Brereton suggest most verses are applicable to Soma and Agni simultaneously.
(21) Pirart saw here a "mythe autrement inconnu" of Sindhu consecrating the horses for the Asvins. (22) Others have assumed that sincad asvan refers to a moistening that protected the horses from overheating during a race: as a result the Asvins won and obtained Surya.
He equates the Tokharians with the Yuezhi, and the Wusun with the Asvins, as if these are established facts, and refers to his arguments in appendix B.
urjani- 'female genius of urj- (who attends the Asvins)' (RV 1.119.2d): urj-/urja- 'energy' (3)
RV 1, 117, 5 compares Vandana, who was apparently dead but became reanimated by the Asvins, with the sun lying in darkness (i.e., in the underworld) and with someone who is sleeping in the womb of Nirrti.
There is a direct reference to it in RV 10.40.2, (11) in which the poet, addressing the Asvins, says: 2cd ko vam sayutra vidhdveva devaram, maryam na yosa krnute sadhastha a "Who takes you two to his place, as a widow (takes) her brother-in-law to bed, as a young woman her young man?" It is possible that the category of vidhava could include not just women whose husbands are deceased, but also those whose husbands are impotent.
(42.) This follows Indra's telling Sunahsepa to praise the two Asvins, who tell him to praise the Dawn.
I.l18.2cd pinvatam ga jinvatam arvato no / vardhayatam asvina viram asme Swell the cows; quicken our coursers; strengthen, O Asvins, the hero among us.
The Asvins have a particular relation to sura, primarily in their function as healers along with Sarasvati in a verse (X.131.5) which could be an abstract of the opening myth of the Sautramani sacrifice in the Satapatha Brahmana.
In the Veda, madhu is specifically associated with the Asvins (cf.
Nevertheless, because the term is applied to several Vedic gods, notably Indra, Agni, the Maruts (Rudras), the Asvins, and Soma (though notably not to any one of the Adityas, Mitra or Varuna, etc.), as well as to a handful of otherwise obscure human figures, a generally positive sense like 'rich, liberal, powerful' etc., can be reasonably assumed.
The present jara- with active endings is also used in the positive sense 'to cause to attain old age, to make reach a full life-span' (RV 7.67.10 = 7.69.8 dhattam ratnani jaratarn ca surin "Bestow treasures (you two Asvins) and make the patrons attain old age").
Note the parallelism of divabhipitve in 5.76.2c and diva naktam in 5.76.3c: na samskrtam pra mimito gamistha anti nunam asvinopastuteha divabhipitve 'vasagamistha praty avartim dasuse sambhavistha uta yatam samgave pratar ahno madhyamdina udita suryasya diva naktam avasa samtamena nedanim pitir asvina tatana (RV 5.76.2-3) The best going guests [the Asvins] do not scorn what is ready; even now the praised Asvins are here.
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